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Boersma, Anne; Shackleton, Nicholas J; Hall, Michael A; Given, Quentin (1979): Stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of foraminifera from Cretaceous and Paleocene sediments. PANGAEA,, Supplement to: Boersma, A et al. (1979): Carbon and oxygen isotope records at DSDP Site 384 (North Atlantic) and some Paleocene paleotemperatures and carbon isotope variations in the Atlantic Ocean. In: Tucholke, B.E., Vogt, P.R., et al. (eds.), Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, Washington (U.S. Government Print Office), 43, 695-717,

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Detailed analysis of over 200 samples of uppermost Cretaceous and Paleocene sediments from Atlantic Ocean DSDP Sites 384, 86, 95, 152, 144, 20C, 21, 356, 357, and 329 provides new information on the temperature stratification of Paleocene planktonic foraminifera, the temperature and carbon isotopic changes across the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary, and the fluctuating temperature and carbon isotopic records through the Paleocene ~64.5-54 m.y.).
There was a significant temperature rise across the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary both at the surface and in deep waters of the Atlantic Ocean. This temperature rise occurred before the basal Tertiary 'Globigerina' eugubina Zone, so that in the oldest Paleocene sample yet analyzed from the deep sea (Site 356) temperatures are already three degrees higher at the bottom and at the surface than in the Cretaceous. The temperature rise across the boundaryis more pronounced on the bottom and in samples from higher latitudes.
Accompanying the temperature rise across the boundary there is a significant shift in the carbon isotope profile. In the basal Paleocene the foraminifera of the surface zone demonstrate very negative carbon isotope values (unlike in the Cretaceous of today's ocean), while deeper dwelling species have more positive values which then decrease to the bottom. The unusual carbon isotope gradients persist through the first three million years of the Paleocene until towards the top of planktonic foraminiferal Zone P.1 (G. trinidadensis Zone) the foraminifera record a profile more positive at the surface and decreasing towards the bottom (as in today's ocean).
During the Paleocene there are two noteworthy rises in surface water temperature; the first around 62-61 m.y. (G. trinidadensis Zone), and the second near the base of the Globorotalia angulata Zone, 60-59 m.y. At this time surface temperatures at low to mid latitudes reached values near 25°C, while at mid-latitude Site 384 temperature highs near 22°C were registered. At a sample spacing of around one per million years, we have only produced some of the detail of these temperature fluctuations. The later Paleocene is generally cooler and there do not seem to be any large variations either through time or latitude. Middle-latitude sites average temperatures near 15°C at the surface, while high lower latitude site temperatures range near 18°C.
The most salient feature of the bottom temperature record (based on multispecific samples) through the Paleocene is its lack of fluctuations. There is an overall temperature range of 5°C at these intermediate depth sites (paleodepth estimates between 1500 and 3000 m). Higher values near 13°C accompany the surface temperature peaks around 62 and 60 m.y., while low values near 8°C occur in Zone P.2 (61-60 m.y.). We detected no change in bottom temperature across the paleocene/Eocene boundary in the few samples studied so far.
While there are several fluctuations in the carbon isotope values through the early Paleocene, the general trend is one of increasingly positive values at the surface and at depth. This trend culminates in the late Paleocene (upper Zone P.4, about 56-57 m.y.) with a major excursion in the carbon isotope values. At low latitudes the range between the surface and the deepest planktonic foraminifera is a delta13C of 4 per mil as compared with a range of 2 per mil today. The carbon values drop off slightly, but remain strongly positive through the remainder of the Paleocene at most sites. Accompanying the carbon isotope excursion at Site 384 is a productivity increase and a proposed rise in the CCD.
Median Latitude: 4.509145 * Median Longitude: -58.391523 * South-bound Latitude: -30.004200 * West-bound Longitude: -113.995200 * North-bound Latitude: 40.360800 * East-bound Longitude: -26.845500
Date/Time Start: 1969-01-09T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1978-11-18T00:00:00
10-86 * Latitude: 22.874700 * Longitude: -90.962500 * Date/Time: 1970-02-25T00:00:00 * Elevation: -1481.0 m * Penetration: 686.1 m * Recovery: 35.1 m * Location: Gulf of Mexico/BENCH * Campaign: Leg10 * Basis: Glomar Challenger * Device: Drilling/drill rig (DRILL) * Comment: 13 cores; 93.6 m cored; 0 m drilled; 37.5 % recovery
10-94 * Latitude: 24.527300 * Longitude: -88.469300 * Date/Time: 1970-03-22T00:00:00 * Elevation: -1793.0 m * Penetration: 660 m * Recovery: 175.2 m * Location: Gulf of Mexico/SCARP * Campaign: Leg10 * Basis: Glomar Challenger * Device: Drilling/drill rig (DRILL) * Comment: 39 cores; 294.7 m cored; 1 m drilled; 59.5 % recovery
10-95 * Latitude: 24.150000 * Longitude: -86.397500 * Date/Time: 1970-03-27T00:00:00 * Elevation: -1633.0 m * Penetration: 463 m * Recovery: 118.1 m * Location: Gulf of Mexico/SCARP * Campaign: Leg10 * Basis: Glomar Challenger * Device: Drilling/drill rig (DRILL) * Comment: 22 cores; 170 m cored; 0 m drilled; 69.5 % recovery
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