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Kennett, James P; Stott, Lowell D (1990): Stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of benthic foraminifera from Paleocene to Oligocene sediments. PANGAEA,, Supplement to: Kennett, JP; Stott, LD (1990): Proteus and Proto-Oceanus: ancestral Paleogene oceans as revealed from Antarctic stable isotopic results; ODP Leg 113. In: Barker, PF; Kennett, JP; et al. (eds.), Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results, College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 113, 865-878,

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Benthic oxygen and carbon isotopic results from a depth transect on Maud Rise, Antarctica, provide the first evidence for Warm Saline Deep Water (WSDW) in the Paleogene oceans. Distinct reversals occur in the oxygen isotopic gradient between the shallower Hole 689B (Eocene depth ~1400 m; present-day depth 2080 m) and the deeper Hole 690B (Eocene depth ~2250 m; present-day depth 2914 m). The isotopic reversals, well developed by at least 46 Ma (middle middle Eocene), existed for much of the remaining Paleogene. We do not consider these reversals to be artifacts of differential diagenesis between the two sites or to have resulted from other potentially complicating factors. This being so, the results show that deep waters at Hole 690B were significantly warmer than deep waters at the shallower Hole 689B. A progressive decrease and eventual reversal in benthic to planktonic delta18O gradients in Hole 690B, demonstrate that the deeper waters became warmer relative to Antarctic surface waters during the Eocene. The warmer deep waters of the Paleogene are inferred to have been produced at middle to low latitudes, probably in the Tethyan region which contained extensive shallow-water platforms, ideal sites for the formation of high salinity water through evaporative processes.
The ocean during the Eocene, and perhaps the Paleocene, is inferred to have been two-layered, consisting of warm, saline deep waters formed at low latitudes and overlain by cooler waters formed at high latitudes. This thermospheric ocean, dominated by halothermal circulation we name Proteus. The Neogene and modern psychrospheric ocean Oceanus is dominated by thermohaline circulation of deep waters largely formed at high latitudes. An intermediate condition existed during the Oligocene, with a three-layered ocean that consisted of cold, dense deep waters formed in the Antarctic (Proto-AABW), overlain by warm, saline deep waters from low latitudes, and in turn overlain by cool waters formed in the polar regions. This we name Proto-oceanus which combined both halothermal and thermohaline processes.
The sequence of high latitude, major, climatic change inferred from the oxygen isotopic records is as follows: generally cooler earlier Paleocene; warming during the late Paleocene; climax of Cenozoic warmth during the early Eocene and continuing into the early middle Eocene; cooling mainly in a series of steps during the remainder of the Paleogene. Superimposed upon this Paleogene pattern, the Paleocene/Eocene boundary is marked by a brief but distinct warming that involved deep to surface waters and a reduction in surface to deep carbon and oxygen isotopic gradients. This event coincided with major extinctions among the deep-sea benthic foraminifers as shown by Thomas (1990 doi:10.2973/
Salinity has played a major role in deep ocean circulation, and thus paleotemperatures cannot be inferred directly from the oxygen isotopic composition of Paleogene benthic foraminifers without first accounting for the salinity effect.
Median Latitude: -64.839000 * Median Longitude: 2.152400 * South-bound Latitude: -65.161000 * West-bound Longitude: 1.204900 * North-bound Latitude: -64.517000 * East-bound Longitude: 3.099900
Date/Time Start: 1987-01-16T08:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1987-01-21T07:00:00
113-689B * Latitude: -64.517000 * Longitude: 3.099900 * Date/Time Start: 1987-01-16T08:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1987-01-18T06:45:00 * Elevation: -2091.0 m * Penetration: 297.3 m * Recovery: 229.45 m * Location: South Atlantic Ocean * Campaign: Leg113 * Basis: Joides Resolution * Method/Device: Drilling/drill rig (DRILL) * Comment: 33 cores; 297.3 m cored; 0 m drilled; 77.2 % recovery
113-690B * Latitude: -65.161000 * Longitude: 1.204900 * Date/Time Start: 1987-01-20T03:15:00 * Date/Time End: 1987-01-21T07:00:00 * Elevation: -2925.0 m * Penetration: 213.4 m * Recovery: 214.75 m * Location: South Atlantic Ocean * Campaign: Leg113 * Basis: Joides Resolution * Method/Device: Drilling/drill rig (DRILL) * Comment: 25 cores; 213.4 m cored; 0 m drilled; 100.6 % recovery
For age models see Stott et al. (1990) datasets: doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.726370
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