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Ukstins Peate, Ingrid; Baker, Joel A; Kent, Adam J R; Al-Kadasi, Mohamed; Al-Subbary, Abdulkarim; Ayalew, Dereje; Menzies, Martin (2003): Geochemistry of Indian Ocean tephra and Afro-Arabian lavas. PANGAEA,, Supplement to: Ukstins Peate, I et al. (2003): Correlation of Indian Ocean tephra to individual Oligocene silicic eruptions from Afro-Arabian flood volcanism. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 211(3-4), 311-327,

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Widespread silicic pyroclastic eruptions of the Oligocene Afro-Arabian flood volcanic province (ignimbrites and airfall tuffs) produced up to 20% of the total flood volcanic stratigraphy (>6*10**4 km**3). Volumes of individual ignimbrites and tuffs exposed on land range from ~150 to >2000 km**3 and eight major units (15-100 m thick) were erupted in <2 Myr, placing these amongst the largest-magnitude silicic pyroclastic eruptions on Earth. They are compositionally distinctive time-stratigraphic markers which were deposited as co-ignimbrite ashfall deposits on a near-global scale around the time of the Oi2 cooling anomaly at ~30 Ma. Two ignimbrites from the lower part of the flood volcanic succession in Yemen have been correlated to: (a) the conjugate rifted margin of Ethiopia (>500 km distant); and (b) to two deep sea ash layers sampled by ODP Leg 115 in the Indian Ocean ~2700 km to the southeast. This correlation is based on whole rock analyses of silicic units for isotope ratios (Pb, Nd) and rare earth element compositions, in conjunction with novel in situ Pb isotope laser ablation multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy analysis of groundmass and glass shards. Compositional diversity preserved on the scale of individual ash shards in these deep sea tephra layers record chemical heterogeneity present in the silicic magma chambers that is not evident in the welded on-land deposits. Ages of the ash layers can be established by correlation to precisely dated on-land ignimbrites, and current evidence suggests that while these eruptions may have exacerbated already changing climatic conditions, they both marginally post-date the Oi2 global cooling anomaly.
Median Latitude: 2.370446 * Median Longitude: 54.811808 * South-bound Latitude: -2.742700 * West-bound Longitude: 39.503000 * North-bound Latitude: 15.350000 * East-bound Longitude: 61.163000
Date/Time Start: 1987-06-11T01:30:00 * Date/Time End: 1987-06-12T15:30:00
115-711A * Latitude: -2.742700 * Longitude: 61.163000 * Date/Time Start: 1987-06-11T01:30:00 * Date/Time End: 1987-06-12T15:30:00 * Elevation: -4439.0 m * Penetration: 249.7 m * Recovery: 203.86 m * Location: South Indian Ridge, South Indian Ocean * Campaign: Leg115 * Basis: Joides Resolution * Device: Drilling/drill rig (DRILL) * Comment: 26 cores; 249.6 m cored; 0 m drilled; 81.7 % recovery
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