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Raymo, Maureen E; Hodell, David A; Jansen, Eystein (1992): Stable carbon and oxygen isotope records of Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi in DSDP and ODP sites in the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean. PANGAEA,, Supplement to: Raymo, ME et al. (1992): Response of deep ocean circulation to initiation of Northern Hemisphere glaciation (3-2 MA). Paleoceanography, 7(5), 645-672,

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Carbon isotopic records from benthic foraminifera are used to map patterns of deep ocean circulation between 3 and 2 million years ago, the interval when significant northern hemisphere glaciation began. The delta18O and delta13C data from four Atlantic sites (552, 607, 610, and 704) and one Pacific site (677) show that global cooling over this interval was associated with increased suppression of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) formation. However, the relative strength of NADW production was always greater than is observed during late Pleistocene glaciations when extreme decreases in NADW are observed in the deep North Atlantic. Our data indicate that an increase in the equator-to-pole temperature gradient associated with the onset of northern hemisphere glaciation did not intensify deepwater production in the North Atlantic but rather the opposite occurred. This is not unexpected as it is the "warm high-salinity" characteristic, rather than the "low temperature", of thermocline waters that is critical to the deepwater formation process in this region today.
Median Latitude: 20.917740 * Median Longitude: -30.278320 * South-bound Latitude: -46.879000 * West-bound Longitude: -83.737000 * North-bound Latitude: 56.042700 * East-bound Longitude: 7.420800
Date/Time Start: 1981-07-31T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1987-04-26T06:54:00
111-677A * Latitude: 1.202300 * Longitude: -83.737000 * Date/Time Start: 1986-09-30T09:45:00 * Date/Time End: 1986-10-03T15:15:00 * Elevation: -3472.0 m * Penetration: 309.4 m * Recovery: 279.44 m * Location: North Pacific Ocean * Campaign: Leg111 * Basis: Joides Resolution * Device: Drilling/drill rig (DRILL) * Comment: 34 cores; 309.4 m cored; 0 m drilled; 90.3 % recovery
114-704A * Latitude: -46.879000 * Longitude: 7.420800 * Date/Time Start: 1987-04-25T13:30:00 * Date/Time End: 1987-04-26T06:54:00 * Elevation: -2543.0 m * Penetration: 282.7 m * Recovery: 224.55 m * Location: South Atlantic Ocean * Campaign: Leg114 * Basis: Joides Resolution * Device: Drilling/drill rig (DRILL) * Comment: 30 cores; 282.7 m cored; 0 m drilled; 79.4 % recovery
81-552A * Latitude: 56.042700 * Longitude: -23.231300 * Date/Time: 1981-07-31T00:00:00 * Elevation: -2301.0 m * Penetration: 183.5 m * Recovery: 182.3 m * Location: North Atlantic/PLATEAU * Campaign: Leg81 * Basis: Glomar Challenger * Device: Drilling/drill rig (DRILL) * Comment: 38 cores; 183.5 m cored; 0 m drilled; 99.4 % recovery
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