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Schmidt, Daniela N; Thierstein, Hans R; Bollmann, Jörg (2004): The evolutionary history of size variation of planktic foraminiferal assemblages in the Cenozoic. PANGAEA, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.694693, Supplement to: Schmidt, DN et al. (2004): The evolutionary history of size variation of planktic foraminiferal assemblages in the Cenozoic. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 212(1-2), 159-180, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2004.06.002

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Abstract:
The iterative evolutionary radiation of planktic foraminifers is a well-documented macroevolutionary process. Here we document the accompanying size changes in entire planktic foraminiferal assemblages for the past 70 My and their relationship to paleoenvironmental changes. After the size decrease at the Cretaceous/Paleogene (K/P) boundary, high latitude assemblages remained consistently small. Size evolution in low latitudes can be divided into three major phases: the first is characterized by dwarfs (65-42 Ma), the second shows moderate size fluctuations (42-14 Ma), and in the third phase, planktic foraminifers have grown to the unprecedented sizes observed today.
Our analyses of size variability with paleoproxy records indicate that periods of size increase coincided with phases of global cooling (Eocene and Neogene). These periods were characterized by enhanced latitudinal and vertical temperature gradients in the oceans and high diversity (polytaxy). In the Paleocene and during the Oligocene, the observed (minor) size changes of the largely low-diversity (oligotaxic) assemblages seem to correlate with productivity changes. However, polytaxy per se was not responsible for larger test sizes.
Related to:
Schmidt, Daniela N; Thierstein, Hans R; Bollmann, Jörg; Schiebel, Ralf (2004): Abiotic forcing of plankton evolution in the Cenozoic. Science, 303(5655), 207-210, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1090592
Project(s):
Coverage:
Median Latitude: -5.500871 * Median Longitude: -169.669338 * South-bound Latitude: -58.441000 * West-bound Longitude: 76.794000 * North-bound Latitude: 30.142333 * East-bound Longitude: -43.488900
Date/Time Start: 1988-03-06T22:30:00 * Date/Time End: 1997-01-27T02:00:00
Event(s):
120-747A * Latitude: -54.811000 * Longitude: 76.794000 * Date/Time Start: 1988-03-06T22:30:00 * Date/Time End: 1988-03-08T17:15:00 * Elevation: -1706.0 m * Penetration: 256 m * Recovery: 227.34 m * Location: South Indian Ridge, South Indian Ocean * Campaign: Leg120 * Basis: Joides Resolution * Device: Drilling/drill rig (DRILL) * Comment: 27 cores; 256 m cored; 0 m drilled; 88.8 % recovery
120-748B * Latitude: -58.441000 * Longitude: 78.998100 * Date/Time Start: 1988-03-14T07:30:00 * Date/Time End: 1988-03-15T11:00:00 * Elevation: -1301.0 m * Penetration: 225.1 m * Recovery: 190.15 m * Location: South Indian Ridge, South Indian Ocean * Campaign: Leg120 * Basis: Joides Resolution * Device: Drilling/drill rig (DRILL) * Comment: 25 cores; 225.1 m cored; 0 m drilled; 84.5 % recovery
120-748C * Latitude: -58.441000 * Longitude: 78.998100 * Date/Time Start: 1988-03-15T11:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1988-03-23T22:54:00 * Elevation: -1301.0 m * Penetration: 935 m * Recovery: 185.88 m * Location: South Indian Ridge, South Indian Ocean * Campaign: Leg120 * Basis: Joides Resolution * Device: Drilling/drill rig (DRILL) * Comment: 87 cores; 760 m cored; 0 m drilled; 24.5 % recovery
Size:
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