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Thiede, Jörn; Lindemann, Frank (1998): Sediments in arctic sea ice - entrainment, characterization and quantification. PANGAEA,, Supplement to: Lindemann, Frank (1998): Sedimente im arktischen Meereis - Eintrag, Charakterisierung und Quantifizierung (Sediments in arctic sea ice - entrainment, characterization and quantification). Berichte zur Polarforschung = Reports on Polar Research, 283, 124 pp,

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Sediments in Arctic sea ice are important for erosion and redistribution and consequently a factor for the sediment budget of the Arctic Ocean. The processes leading to the incorporation of sediments into the ice are not understood in detail yet. In the present study, experiments on the incorporation of sediments were therefore conducted in ice tanks of The Hamburg Ship Model Basin (HSVA) in winter 1996/1997, These experiments showed that on average 75 % of the artificial sea-ice sediments were located in the brine-channel system. The sediments were scavenged from the water column by frazil ice. Sediments functioning as a nucleus for the formation of frazil ice were less important for the incorporation. Filtration in grease ice during relatively calm hydrodynamic conditions was probably an effective process to enrich sediments in the ice. Wave fields did not play an important role for the incorporation of sediments into the artificial sea ice.
During the expedition TRANSDRIFT III (TDIII, October 1995), different types of natural, newly-formed sea ice (grease ice, nilas and young ice) were sampled in the inner Laptev Sea at the time of freeze-up. The incorporation of sediments took place during calm meteorological conditions then. The characteristics of the clay mineral assemblages of these sedirnents served as references for sea-ice sediments which were sampled from first-year drift ice in the outer Laptev Sea and the adjacent Arctic Ocean during the POLARSTERN expedition ARK-XI/1 (July-September 1995). Based on the clay mineral assemblages, probable incorporation areas for the sedirnents in first-year drift ice could be statistically reconstructed in the inner Laptev Sea (eastern, central, and Western Laptev Sea) as well as in adjacent regions. Comparing the amounts of particulate organic carbon (POC) in sea-ice sediments and in surface sediments from the shelves of potential incorporation areas often reveals higher values in sea-ice sediments (TDIII: 3.6 %DM; ARK-XI/1: 2.3 %DM). This enrichment of POC is probably due to the incorporation process into the sea ice, as could be deducted from maceral analysis and Rock-Eval pyrolysis. Both methods were applied in the present study to particulate organic material (POM) from sea-ice sediments for the first time. It was shown that the POM of the sea-ice sediments from the Laptev Sea and the adjacent Arctic Ocean was dominated by reworked, strongly fragmented, allochthonous (terrigenous) material. This terrigenous component accounted for more than 75 % of all counted macerals. The autochthonous (marine) component was also strongly fragmented, and higher in the sediments from newly-formed sea ice (24 % of all counted macerals) as compared to first-year drift ice (17 % of all counted macerals). Average hydroge indices confirmed this pattern and were in the transition zone between kerogen types II and III (TDIII: 275 mg KW/g POC; ARK-XI/1: 200 mg KW/g POC). The sediment loads quantified in natural sea ice (TDIII: 33.6 mg/l, ARK-XI/1: 49.0 mg/l) indicated that sea-ice sediments are an important factor for the sediment budget in the Laptev Sea. In particular during the incorporation phase in autumn and early winter, about 12 % of the sediment load imported annually by rivers into the Laptev Sea can be incorporated into sea ice and redistributed during calm meteorological conditions. Single entrainment events can incorporate about 35 % of the river input into the sea ice (ca. 9 x 10**6 t) and export it via the Transpolar Drift from the Eurasian shelf to the Fram Strait.
Median Latitude: 76.201248 * Median Longitude: 131.474341 * South-bound Latitude: 70.881667 * West-bound Longitude: 105.326600 * North-bound Latitude: 81.194500 * East-bound Longitude: 152.074100
ARK-XI/1_201 (201) * Latitude: 78.199000 * Longitude: 106.519000 * Location: Laptev Sea * Campaign: ARK-XI/1 (PS36) * Basis: Polarstern * Method/Device: Ice station (ICE)
ARK-XI/1_205b (205b) * Latitude: 78.318000 * Longitude: 145.438500 * Location: East Siberian Sea * Campaign: ARK-XI/1 (PS36) * Basis: Polarstern * Method/Device: Ice station (ICE)
ARK-XI/1_208 (208) * Latitude: 79.240300 * Longitude: 152.074100 * Location: Arctic Ocean * Campaign: ARK-XI/1 (PS36) * Basis: Polarstern * Method/Device: Ice station (ICE)
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