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Nikiforov, Sergey L; Colony, Roger; Timokhov, Leonid (2001): Hydrochemical Atlas of the Arctic Ocean. Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute of the Russian Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring, International Arctic Research Center, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, St. Petersburg, PANGAEA, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.691332

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Abstract:
Introduction: Chemical composition of water determines its physical properties and character of processes proceeding in it: freezing temperature, volume of evaporation, density, color, transparency, filtration capacity, etc. Presence of chemical elements in water solution confers waters special physical properties exerting significant influence on their circulation, creates necessary conditions for development and inhabitance of flora and fauna, and imparts to the ocean waters some chemical features that radically differ them from the land waters (Alekin & Liakhin, 1984).
Hydrochemical information helps to determine elements of water circulation, convection depth, makes it easier to distinguish water masses and gives additional knowledge of climatic variability of ocean conditions. Hydrochemical information is a necessary part of biological research. Water chemical composition can be the governing characteristics determining possibility and limits of use of marine objects, both stationary and moving in sea water.
Subject of investigation of hydrochemistry is study of dynamics of chemical composition, i.e. processes of its formation and hydrochemical conditions of water bodies (Alekin & Liakhin 1984). The hydrochemical processes in the Arctic Ocean are the least known. Some information on these processes can be obtained in odd publications. A generalizing study of hydrochemical conditions in the Arctic Ocean based on expeditions conducted in the years 1948-1975 has been carried out by Rusanov et al. (1979).
The "Atlas of the World Ocean: the Arctic Ocean" contains a special section "Hydrochemistry" (Gorshkov, 1980). Typical vertical profiles, transects and maps for different depths - 0, 100, 300, 500, 1000, 2000, 3000 m are given in this section for the following parameters: dissolved oxygen, phosphate, silicate, pH and alkaline-chlorine coefficient. The maps were constructed using the data of expeditions conducted in the years 1948-1975. The illustrations reflect main features of distribution of the hydrochemical elements for multi-year period and represent a static image of hydrochemical conditions. Distribution of the hydrochemical elements on the ocean surface is given for two seasons - winter and summer, for the other depths are given mean annual fields.
Aim of the present Atlas is description of hydrochemical conditions in the Arctic Ocean on the basis of a greater body of hydrochemical information for the years 1948-2000 and using the up-to-date methods of analysis and electronic forms of presentation of hydrochemical information. The most wide-spread characteristics determined in water samples were used as hydrochemical indices. They are: dissolved oxygen, phosphate, silicate, pH, total alkalinity, nitrite and nitrate. An important characteristics of water salt composition - "salinity" has been considered in the Oceanographic Atlas of the Arctic Ocean (1997, 1998).
Presentation of the hydrochemical characteristics in this Hydrochemical Atlas is wider if compared with that of the former Atlas (Gorshkov, 1980). Maps of climatic distribution of the hydrochemical elements were constructed for all the standard depths, and seasonal variability of the hydrochemical parameters is given not only for the surface, but also for the underlying standard depths up to 400 m and including. Statistical characteristics of the hydrochemical elements are given for the first time. Detailed accuracy estimates of initial data and map construction are also given in the Atlas. Calculated values of mean-root deviations, maximum and minimum values of the parameters demonstrate limits of their variability for the analyzed period of observations. Therefore, not only investigations of chemical statics are summarized in the Atlas, but also some elements of chemical dynamics are demonstrated.
Digital arrays of the hydrochemical elements obtained in nodes of a regular grid are the new form of characteristics presentation in the Atlas. It should be mentioned that the same grid and the same boxes were used in the Atlas, as those that had been used by creation of the US-Russian climatic Oceanographic Atlas. It allows to combine hydrochemical and oceanographic information of these Atlases.
The first block of the digital arrays contains climatic characteristics calculated using direct observational data. These climatic characteristics were not calculated in the regions without observations, and the information arrays for these regions have gaps. The other block of climatic information in a gridded form was obtained with the help of objective analysis of observational data. Procedure of the objective analysis allowed us to obtain climatic estimates of the hydrochemical characteristics for the whole water area of the Arctic Ocean including the regions not covered by observations. Data of the objective analysis can be widely used, in particular, in hydrobiological investigations and in modeling of hydrochemical conditions of the Arctic Ocean. Array of initial measurements is a separate block. It includes all the available materials of hydrochemical observations in the form, as they were presented in different sources. While keeping in mind that this array contains some amount of perverted information, the authors of the Atlas assumed it necessary to store this information in its primary form. Methods of data quality control can be developed in future in the process of hydrochemical information accumulation. It can be supposed that attitude can vary in future to the data that were rejected according to the procedure accepted in the Atlas.
The hydrochemical Atlas of the Arctic Ocean is the first specialized and electronic generalization of hydrochemical observations in the Arctic Ocean and finishes the program of joint efforts of Russian and US specialists in preparation of a number of atlases for the Arctic. The published Oceanographic Atlas (1997, 1998), Atlas of Arctic Meteorology and Climate (2000), Ice Atlas of the Arctic Ocean prepared for publication and Hydrochemical Atlas of the Arctic Ocean represent a united series of fundamental generalizations of empirical knowledge of Arctic Ocean nature at climatic level.
The Hydrochemical Atlas of the Arctic Ocean was elaborated in the result of joint efforts of the SRC of the RF AARI and IARC. Dr. Ye. Nikiforov was scientific supervisor of the Atlas, Dr. R. Colony was manager on behalf of the USA and Dr. L. Timokhov - on behalf of Russia.
Related to:
Nikiforov, Sergey L; Colony, Roger; Timokhov, Leonid (2001): Hydrochemical Atlas of the Arctic Ocean. Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute of the Russian Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring, International Arctic Research Center, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, St. Petersburg, Version 1.0, CD-ROM, hdl:10013/epic.30422.d001
Coverage:
Median Latitude: 73.565879 * Median Longitude: 129.458864 * South-bound Latitude: 34.916700 * West-bound Longitude: 0.000000 * North-bound Latitude: 90.000000 * East-bound Longitude: -0.899990
Date/Time Start: 1948-04-16T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 2000-09-17T00:00:00
Event(s):
AF00-1 * Latitude: 82.005900 * Longitude: -171.967000 * Date/Time: 2000-08-24T00:00:00 * Elevation: -3209.0 m * Location: Arctic Ocean * Campaign: AF00 * Basis: Akademik Fedorov * Device: Bottle, Niskin (NIS)
AF00-10 * Latitude: 81.985900 * Longitude: 175.138000 * Date/Time: 2000-09-04T00:00:00 * Elevation: -2663.0 m * Location: Arctic Ocean * Campaign: AF00 * Basis: Akademik Fedorov * Device: Bottle, Niskin (NIS)
AF00-11 * Latitude: 82.009600 * Longitude: 174.285000 * Date/Time: 2000-09-05T00:00:00 * Elevation: -2697.0 m * Location: Arctic Ocean * Campaign: AF00 * Basis: Akademik Fedorov * Device: Bottle, Niskin (NIS)
Comment:
During the compilation of this data collection, the original source and principle investigators were not archived by the editors of the CD-ROM.
Size:
235 datasets

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Datasets listed in this Collection

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  1. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise AF00. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772252
  2. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise AS85. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772335
  3. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise AS87. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772336
  4. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise AS89. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772337
  5. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise AUGE1988. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772338
  6. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise AUGMS1968. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772339
  7. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise AUGMS1970. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772340
  8. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise AUGMS1971. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772341
  9. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise AUGMS1972. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772342
  10. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise AUGMS1976. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772343
  11. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise AUGMS1977. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772344
  12. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise AUGMS1982. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772345
  13. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise AUGMS1984. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772346
  14. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise AUGMS1985. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772347
  15. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise Azimut1964. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772348
  16. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise Azimut1965. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772349
  17. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise Azimut1966. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772350
  18. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise Azimut1967. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772351
  19. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise Azimut1968. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772352
  20. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise Azimut1969. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772353
  21. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise Azimut1971. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772354
  22. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise DUGMS1965. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772357
  23. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise DUGMS1967. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772358
  24. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise DUGMS1970. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772359
  25. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise DUGMS1971. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772360
  26. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise DUGMS1972. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772361
  27. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise DUGMS1973. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772362
  28. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise DUGMS1974. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772363
  29. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise DUGMS1975. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772364
  30. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise DUGMS1976. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772365
  31. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise DUGMS1978. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772366
  32. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise DUGMS1979. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772367
  33. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise DUGMS1980. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772368
  34. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise DUGMS1981. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772369
  35. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise DUGMS1982. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772370
  36. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise DUGMS1983. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772371
  37. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise DUGMS1984. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772372
  38. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise DUGMS1985. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772373
  39. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise DUGMS1986. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772374
  40. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise DUGMS1987. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772375
  41. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise DUGMS1989. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772376
  42. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise Dranitsyn1995. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772356
  43. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise Fedorov2000. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772378
  44. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise Gidrograph1984. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772379
  45. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise Gromkii1968. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772380
  46. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise Gromkii1969. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772381
  47. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise Gromkii1970. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772382
  48. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise IPE-1992. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772384
  49. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise IPE-1994. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772385
  50. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise IPE-2000. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772386
  51. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise Iceberg1951. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772383
  52. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise Khromov1988. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772389
  53. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise Khromov1989. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772390
  54. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise Khromov1990. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772391
  55. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise Kireev1993. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772392
  56. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise Kosmonavt1972. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772393
  57. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise La67a64. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772394
  58. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise Lag1952. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772395
  59. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise Lena1956. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772396
  60. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise Lena1957. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772397
  61. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise Lena1958. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772398
  62. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise LenaN1996. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772400
  63. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise Liman1973. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772401
  64. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise Litke-1948. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772402
  65. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise Lomonosov1953. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772403
  66. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise Lomonosov1954. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772404
  67. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise Lomonosov1955. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772405
  68. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise Lomonosov1956. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772406
  69. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise Lomonosov1957. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772407
  70. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise Lomonosov1959. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772408
  71. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise Lomonosov1960. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772409
  72. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise Lomonosov1961. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772410
  73. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise Mayak1970. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772411
  74. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise Mayak1971. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772412
  75. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise Mayak1972. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772414
  76. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise Mayak1976. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772417
  77. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise Murmanets1948. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772419
  78. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise Murmanets1949. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772421
  79. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise Murmanets1950. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772423
  80. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise Murmanets1951. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772425
  81. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise NP05. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772431
  82. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise NP14. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772433
  83. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise NP15. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772434
  84. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise NP16. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772435
  85. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise NP17. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772436
  86. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise NP18. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772437
  87. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise NP19. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772438
  88. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise NP20. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772439
  89. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise NP21. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772440
  90. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise NP22. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772441
  91. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise NP23. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772442
  92. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise NP24. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772443
  93. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise NP25. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772444
  94. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise NP26. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772445
  95. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise NP27. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772446
  96. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise NP28. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772447
  97. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise NP31. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772448
  98. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise Nabludatel1982. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772428
  99. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise OBTAZ1967. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772449
  100. Anonymous (2001): Hydrochemistry measured on water bottle samples during cruise Okeanolog1972. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.772450

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