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Wendler, Ines; Zonneveld, Karin A F; Willems, Helmut (2002): Calcareous dionoflagellate cysts from surface sediments. PANGAEA,, Supplement to: Wendler, I et al. (2002): Oxygen availability effects on early diagenetic clacite dissolution in the Arabian Sea as inferred from calcareous dinoflagellate cysts. Global and Planetary Change, 34(3-4), 219-239,

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In oceanic regions with high primary production, such as the Arabian Sea, the primary signals of proxies are often altered by diagenetic processes. The present study aims at assessing the effects of early diagenesis on calcareous dinoflagellate cysts, which represent a relatively new tool for reconstructing the paleoenvironmental conditions within the photic zone. For this purpose, surface sediment samples from within and below the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the northeastern and southwestern Arabian Sea have been analysed quantitatively for their calcareous dinoflagellate cyst content. The calculated cyst accumulation rates (ARs), the relative abundances and cyst fragmentation values were compared to bottom water oxygen (BWO) content and ARs of organic carbon at the sample positions. Different patterns were found in the northeastern and southwestern part of the Arabian Sea. In the SW, no relationship between cyst ARs and BWO is distinguishable, and the distribution of cyst ARs is thought to largely reflect primary cyst production. In the NE, much higher ARs of all species are found in samples from within the OMZ in comparison to samples from below it. This is interpreted to result from better calcite preservation within the OMZ, presumably due to reduced oxic degradation of organic matter. The differential drop of cyst ARs of the individual species at the lower boundary of the OMZ in the NE Arabian Sea, as well as the species-specific change in relative abundance and fragmentation, indicate different sensitivity to calcite dissolution of the different species. These results show that early diagenetic calcite dissolution can change both relative and absolute abundances of calcareous dinoflagellate cysts, which has to be considered if using them for paleoenvironmental reconstructions. Furthermore, it is shown that considerable calcite dissolution can occur above the carbonate saturation horizon in high productive areas. However, calcite preservation can be substantially increased, as soon as oxygen concentrations are too low for oxic degradation of OM. Under low oxic conditions (within and near the OMZ), the main factor controlling organic matter (OM) preservation appears to be BWO concentrations. Under higher oxygen levels (below not, vert, similar1500 m depth in the NE Arabian Sea) there seems to be an increasing influence of bioturbation and sedimentation rate on the preservation of OM by controlling its oxygen exposure time. This study presents an example of a highly productive basin in which differences in early diagenetic processes can lead to the preservation of a signal that is either dominated by primary production (off Somalia) or by secondary alteration (off Pakistan), although in both areas, an oxygen depleted zone is present. For estimating the effects of early diagenetic calcite dissolution in a sediment by metabolic CO2 (and probably by H2S oxidation), not only the content of organic carbon but also other geochemical proxies for paleoredox-conditions have to be included for paleoenvironmental reconstructions.
Related to:
Wendler, Ines (2002): Production and preservation of calcareous dionoflagellate cysts in the modern Arabian Sea. Berichte aus dem Fachbereich Geowissenschaften der Universität Bremen, 190, 117 pp, urn:nbn:de:gbv:46-diss000002749
Wendler, Ines; Zonneveld, Karin A F; Willems, Helmut (2002): Calcareous cyst-producing dinoflagellates: ecology and aspects of cyst preservation in a highly productive oceanic region. Geological Society of London, Special Publications, 195, 317-340,
Median Latitude: 18.246239 * Median Longitude: 58.156867 * South-bound Latitude: 10.683300 * West-bound Longitude: 51.416700 * North-bound Latitude: 24.766700 * East-bound Longitude: 66.033300
Date/Time Start: 1992-10-04T15:48:00 * Date/Time End: 1997-02-21T17:00:00
Minimum DEPTH, sediment/rock: m * Maximum DEPTH, sediment/rock: m
NIOP-C1_301 * Latitude: 15.133300 * Longitude: 51.416700 * Elevation: -74.0 m * Campaign: NIOP-C1 * Basis: Tyro * Method/Device: Box corer (BC)
NIOP-C1_302 * Latitude: 15.000000 * Longitude: 51.450000 * Elevation: -208.0 m * Campaign: NIOP-C1 * Basis: Tyro * Method/Device: Box corer (BC)
NIOP-C1_303 * Latitude: 14.850000 * Longitude: 51.483300 * Elevation: -474.0 m * Campaign: NIOP-C1 * Basis: Tyro * Method/Device: Box corer (BC)
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethod/DeviceComment
1Event labelEvent
2Latitude of eventLatitude
3Longitude of eventLongitude
4Elevation of eventElevationm
5DEPTH, sediment/rockDepthmGeocode
6Thoracosphaera heimii, per unit mass sedimentT. heimii#/gWillems, HelmutCounting, dinoflagellate cystsabsolute abundance
7Leonella granifera, per unit mass sedimentL. granifera#/gWillems, HelmutCounting, dinoflagellate cystsabsolute abundance
8Calciodinellum albatrosianum, per unit mass sedimentC. albatrosianum#/gWillems, HelmutCounting, dinoflagellate cystsabsolute abundance
9Calciodinellum sp., per unit mass sedimentCalciodinellum sp.#/gWillems, HelmutCounting, dinoflagellate cystsabsolute abundance
10Calciodinellum operosum, per unit mass sedimentC. operosum#/gWillems, HelmutCounting, dinoflagellate cystsabsolute abundance
11Cysts, spiny, per unit mass sedimentCyst spiny#/gWillems, HelmutCounting, dinoflagellate cystsabsolute abundance
330 data points

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