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Esper, Oliver; Gersonde, Rainer; Kadagies, Nicole (2010): Diatom abundance in surface sediments of the Southern Ocean. doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.681699,
Supplement to: Esper, O et al. (2010): Diatom distribution in southeastern Pacific surface sediments and their relation to modern environmental variables. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 287(1-4), 1-27, doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2009.12.006

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The quantitative analysis of diatom assemblages preserved in 52 samples from the Bellingshausen and the Amundsen Seas provides the first comprehensive view on the distribution of diatoms in surface sediments of the eastern and central Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean. On a latitudinal transect along 120°W, diatom valve accumulation rates (AR) reach maximum values (8-10 × 10**8 valves m**-2 yr**-1) in a zone extending over ca. 900 km between the Antarctic Polar Front and the maximum average winter sea ice extent and exceed those ARs obtained from an eastern transect along 90°W by one order of magnitude. Lowest diatom concentrations (1-3 × 10**6 valves g**-1) were encountered in sediments of the Sea Ice Zone, affected by winter and summer sea ice. The accumulation rate pattern of the most abundant diatom Fragilariopsis kerguelensis (> 50% abundance in 47 samples) mirrors the pattern of the total diatom valve AR and the biogenic silica (BSi) AR, making F. kerguelensis the major contributor to the BSi preserved at the sea floor. Relative abundances of diatom species and species groups were statistically compared with a selection of environmental variables, such as the mean summer sea surface temperature and salinity, mean annual surface nutrient concentration (nitrate, phosphate, silicon), mean annual water column stratification, mixed layer depth in summer, and mean summer and winter sea ice concentrations. Polynomial canonical redundancy analysis (RDA) revealed the biogeographic distribution of diatom species had the strongest relationship with summer sea surface temperature (SSST) out of the nine tested environmental variables. This relationship accounted for 69.6% of the total variance of the diatom distribution, with 29.7% explained by the first gradient (significantly correlated to SSST with r**2 = 0.941) and 15.6% explained by the second gradient (correlated to both summer and winter sea ice and silicon concentration). Azpeitia tabularis, Hemidiscus cuneiformis and Roperia tesselata were associated with warmer water conditions (> 4 °C), whereas Fragilariopsis curta, F. separanda, F. rhombica and Thalassiosira gracilis were correlated with cold SSST (< 1.5 °C). Under the second gradient relationship, Actinocyclus actinochilus and F. curta were the most important diatoms representative of the diatom distribution in relation to the observed mean summer and winter sea ice concentrations.
Confirming these environmental relationships is crucial for the development of reference data sets used in quantitative estimations of palaeoclimatic and palaeoceanographic conditions with statistical methods. This new data set represents the first modernised treatment of diatom remains from the SE Pacific Ocean and generally supports the use of a circum-polar database for the determination of summer SST, sea ice and potentially biogenic silica distribution of the Southern Ocean back into the Late Quaternary.
Median Latitude: -62.043064 * Median Longitude: -98.422545 * South-bound Latitude: -72.052000 * West-bound Longitude: -120.929500 * North-bound Latitude: -50.749000 * East-bound Longitude: -82.220000
Date/Time Start: 1994-03-02T05:55:00 * Date/Time End: 2001-04-02T14:05:00
Minimum DEPTH, sediment/rock: m * Maximum DEPTH, sediment/rock: m
PS2546-1 (PS29/062) * Latitude: -72.052000 * Longitude: -120.929500 * Date/Time: 1994-03-02T05:55:00 * Elevation: -2384.0 m * Recovery: 0.15 m * Location: Amundsen Sea * Campaign: ANT-XI/3 (PS29) * Basis: Polarstern * Device: MultiCorer (MUC)
PS2547-2 (PS29/063) * Latitude: -71.150833 * Longitude: -119.919000 * Date/Time: 1994-03-02T15:55:00 * Elevation: -2092.0 m * Recovery: 0.3 m * Location: Amundsen Sea * Campaign: ANT-XI/3 (PS29) * Basis: Polarstern * Device: MultiCorer (MUC)
PS2548-2 (PS29/064) * Latitude: -70.789667 * Longitude: -119.507167 * Date/Time: 1994-03-02T21:35:00 * Elevation: -2642.0 m * Recovery: 0.4 m * Location: Amundsen Sea * Campaign: ANT-XI/3 (PS29) * Basis: Polarstern * Device: MultiCorer (MUC)
Data are accessible on request:
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethodComment
1Event labelEvent
2Latitude of eventLatitude
3Longitude of eventLongitude
4Elevation of eventElevationm
5DEPTH, sediment/rockDepthmGeocode
6Actinocyclus actinochilusA. actinochilus%Gersonde, RainerCounting, diatoms
7Actinocyclus curvatulusA. curvatulus%Gersonde, RainerCounting, diatoms
8Asteromphalus hookeriA. hookeri%Gersonde, RainerCounting, diatoms
9Asteromphalus hyalinusA. hyalinus%Gersonde, RainerCounting, diatoms
10Asteromphalus parvulusA. parvulus%Gersonde, RainerCounting, diatoms
11Azpeitia tabularis var. tabularisA. tabularis var. tabularis%Gersonde, RainerCounting, diatoms
12Azpeitia tabularis var. egregiusA. tabularis var. egregius%Gersonde, RainerCounting, diatoms
13Chaetoceros spp.Chaetoceros spp.%Gersonde, RainerCounting, diatoms
14Eucampia antarcticaE. antarctica%Gersonde, RainerCounting, diatoms
15Fragilariopsis curtaF. curta%Gersonde, RainerCounting, diatoms
16Fragilariopsis cylindrusF. cylindrus%Gersonde, RainerCounting, diatoms
17Fragilariopsis doliolusF. doliolus%Gersonde, RainerCounting, diatoms
18Fragilariopsis kerguelensisF. kerguelensis%Gersonde, RainerCounting, diatoms
19Fragilariopsis obliquecostataF. obliquecostata%Gersonde, RainerCounting, diatoms
20Fragilariopsis rhombicaF. rhombica%Gersonde, RainerCounting, diatoms
21Fragilariopsis ritscheriF. ritscheri%Gersonde, RainerCounting, diatoms
22Fragilariopsis separandaF. separanda%Gersonde, RainerCounting, diatoms
23Fragilariopsis sublinearisF. sublinearis%Gersonde, RainerCounting, diatoms
24Hemidiscus cuneiformisH. cuneiformis%Gersonde, RainerCounting, diatoms
25Nitzschia bicapitataN. bicapitata%Gersonde, RainerCounting, diatoms
26Nitzschia kolaczeckiiN. kolaczeckii%Gersonde, RainerCounting, diatoms
27Porosira glacialisP. glacialis%Gersonde, RainerCounting, diatoms
28Pseudo-nitzschia turgiduloidesP-n turgiduloides%Gersonde, RainerCounting, diatoms
29Rhizosolenia antennata forma antennataR. antennata f antennata%Gersonde, RainerCounting, diatoms
30Rhizosolenia antennata forma semispinaR. antennata f semispina%Gersonde, RainerCounting, diatoms
31Rhizosolenia bergoniiR. bergonii%Gersonde, RainerCounting, diatoms
32Rhizosolenia sp.Rhizosolenia sp.%Gersonde, RainerCounting, diatomssp. A
33Rhizosolenia spp.Rhizosolenia spp.%Gersonde, RainerCounting, diatoms
34Roperia tesselataR. tesselata%Gersonde, RainerCounting, diatoms
35Thalassionema nitzschioides forma 1T. nitzschioides f 1%Gersonde, RainerCounting, diatoms
36Thalassionema nitzschioides var. capitulataT. nitzschioides var. capitulata%Gersonde, RainerCounting, diatoms
37Thalassionema nitzschioides var. lanceolataT. nitzschioides var. lanceolata%Gersonde, RainerCounting, diatoms
38Thalassionema nitzschioides var. parvaT. nitzschioides var. parva%Gersonde, RainerCounting, diatoms
39Thalassionema spp.Thalassionema spp.%Gersonde, RainerCounting, diatoms
40Thalassiosira antarcticaT. antarctica%Gersonde, RainerCounting, diatoms
41Thalassiosira frenguelliopsisT. frenguelliopsis%Gersonde, RainerCounting, diatoms
42Thalassiosira gracilis var. expectaT. gracilis var. expecta%Gersonde, RainerCounting, diatoms
43Thalassiosira gracilis var. gracilisT. gracilis var. gracilis%Gersonde, RainerCounting, diatoms
44Thalassiosira gravidaT. gravida%Gersonde, RainerCounting, diatoms
45Thalassiosira lentiginosaT. lentiginosa%Gersonde, RainerCounting, diatoms
46Thalassiosira oestrupiiT. oestrupii%Gersonde, RainerCounting, diatoms
47Thalassiosira oliveranaT. oliverana%Gersonde, RainerCounting, diatoms
48Thalassiosira spp.Thalassiosira spp.%Gersonde, RainerCounting, diatoms
49Thalassiosira trifultaT. trifulta%Gersonde, RainerCounting, diatoms
50Thalassiosira tumidaT. tumida%Gersonde, RainerCounting, diatoms
51Thalassiothrix antarctica/longissima groupT. antarc/long gr%Gersonde, RainerCounting, diatoms
52Diatoms indeterminataDiatoms indet%Gersonde, RainerCounting, diatoms
53DiatomsDiatoms#Gersonde, RainerCounting, diatoms
2496 data points

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