Mühleisen, R; Riekert, H (1970): Atmospheric electric measurement in the troposphere and stratosphere on the Atlantic Ocean during 1965 and 1969. PANGAEA, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.666396, Supplement to: Mühleisen, R; Riekert, H (1970): Luftelektrische Messungen auf dem Meer. Ergebnisse von der Atlantischen Expeditionen 1965 und 1969. Teil II : Das luftelektrische Feld in Troposphäre und Stratosphäre über dem Atlantischen Ozean. Meteor Forschungsergebnisse, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Reihe B Meteorologie und Aeronomie, Gebrüder Bornträger, Berlin, Stuttgart, B5, 23-45
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One main point of the air electric investigations at the atlantic 1965 and 1969 was the record of the potential gradient in the troposphere with free and captive balloon ascents. The course of the field vs. altitude above the sea differs from that over land. A remarkable enlargement of the field strength occurs at the altitude of the passat inversion. The electric voltage between ionosphere and earth could be obtained by integrating the potential gradient over the altitude. Such computations have been made by balloon ascents simultaneous over the ocean and at Weissenau (South Germany), From 15 simultaneous measurements the average value of the potential of the ionosphere over the ocean is 214 kV and over South Germany 216 kV, that means very close together. Because of the small differences also between the single values it can be concluded that in generally the ionosphere potential has an equal value over these both places at one moment. From the potential of the ionosphere VI, the field strength E0 and the conductivity lamda o, both measured at the sea surface, the columnar resistance R could be derived to 2.4 x 10**17 Ohm x m**2.
By correlation of the single values of the ionosphere potential with the potential gradient measured simultaneously at the surface of the sea a linear proportional relationship exists; it follows from this result, that R is nearly constant.
The mean value of the air-earth current density over the ocean could be calculated by using the measured values of the small ion density with respect to the electrode effect prooved at the equator station. The current density was only 0.9 x 10**-12 A/m**2, which means, a three and a half times smaller value than estimated by Carnegie and accepted up to now. Therefore it seems to be necessary to correct the former calculations of the global current balance.
Median Latitude: 7.812698 * Median Longitude: -29.801590 * South-bound Latitude: -8.133300 * West-bound Longitude: -34.100000 * North-bound Latitude: 49.916700 * East-bound Longitude: -1.766700
Date/Time Start: 1965-03-16T11:40:00 * Date/Time End: 1965-09-06T11:36:00
M16_M31 * Latitude: 0.016700 * Longitude: -32.383300 * Date/Time: 1969-03-16T11:40:00 * Location: Atlantic * Campaign: M16 (GARP - APEX/ATEX) * Basis: Meteor (1964) * Device: Radiosonde (RADIO)
M16_M32 * Latitude: 0.000000 * Longitude: -32.400000 * Date/Time: 1969-03-16T18:08:00 * Location: Atlantic * Campaign: M16 (GARP - APEX/ATEX) * Basis: Meteor (1964) * Device: Radiosonde (RADIO)