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Mühleisen, R; Riekert, H (1970): Atmospheric electric measurement in the troposphere and stratosphere on the Atlantic Ocean during 1965 and 1969. PANGAEA, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.666396, Supplement to: Mühleisen, R; Riekert, H (1970): Luftelektrische Messungen auf dem Meer. Ergebnisse von der Atlantischen Expeditionen 1965 und 1969. Teil II : Das luftelektrische Feld in Troposphäre und Stratosphäre über dem Atlantischen Ozean. Meteor Forschungsergebnisse, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Reihe B Meteorologie und Aeronomie, Gebrüder Bornträger, Berlin, Stuttgart, B5, 23-45

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Abstract:
One main point of the air electric investigations at the atlantic 1965 and 1969 was the record of the potential gradient in the troposphere with free and captive balloon ascents. The course of the field vs. altitude above the sea differs from that over land. A remarkable enlargement of the field strength occurs at the altitude of the passat inversion. The electric voltage between ionosphere and earth could be obtained by integrating the potential gradient over the altitude. Such computations have been made by balloon ascents simultaneous over the ocean and at Weissenau (South Germany), From 15 simultaneous measurements the average value of the potential of the ionosphere over the ocean is 214 kV and over South Germany 216 kV, that means very close together. Because of the small differences also between the single values it can be concluded that in generally the ionosphere potential has an equal value over these both places at one moment. From the potential of the ionosphere VI, the field strength E0 and the conductivity lamda o, both measured at the sea surface, the columnar resistance R could be derived to 2.4 x 10**17 Ohm x m**2.
By correlation of the single values of the ionosphere potential with the potential gradient measured simultaneously at the surface of the sea a linear proportional relationship exists; it follows from this result, that R is nearly constant.
The mean value of the air-earth current density over the ocean could be calculated by using the measured values of the small ion density with respect to the electrode effect prooved at the equator station. The current density was only 0.9 x 10**-12 A/m**2, which means, a three and a half times smaller value than estimated by Carnegie and accepted up to now. Therefore it seems to be necessary to correct the former calculations of the global current balance.
Coverage:
Median Latitude: 7.812698 * Median Longitude: -29.801590 * South-bound Latitude: -8.133300 * West-bound Longitude: -34.100000 * North-bound Latitude: 49.916700 * East-bound Longitude: -1.766700
Date/Time Start: 1965-03-16T11:40:00 * Date/Time End: 1965-09-06T11:36:00
Event(s):
M16_M31 * Latitude: 0.016700 * Longitude: -32.383300 * Date/Time: 1969-03-16T11:40:00 * Location: Atlantic * Campaign: M16 (GARP - APEX/ATEX) * Basis: Meteor (1964) * Device: Radiosonde (RADIO)
M16_M32 * Latitude: 0.000000 * Longitude: -32.400000 * Date/Time: 1969-03-16T18:08:00 * Location: Atlantic * Campaign: M16 (GARP - APEX/ATEX) * Basis: Meteor (1964) * Device: Radiosonde (RADIO)
M16_M33 * Latitude: 0.000000 * Longitude: -32.400000 * Date/Time: 1969-03-17T12:25:00 * Location: Atlantic * Campaign: M16 (GARP - APEX/ATEX) * Basis: Meteor (1964) * Device: Radiosonde (RADIO)
Size:
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  1. Mühleisen, R; Riekert, H (1970): Atmospheric electric measurements during the Atlantic Expedition 1965 of RV "Meteor", balloon ascent M2_M01 (Table 1). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.666354
  2. Mühleisen, R; Riekert, H (1970): Atmospheric electric measurements during the Atlantic Expedition 1965 of RV "Meteor", balloon ascent M2_M02 (Table 1). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.666355
  3. Mühleisen, R; Riekert, H (1970): Atmospheric electric measurements during the Atlantic Expedition 1965 of RV "Meteor", balloon ascent M2_M03 (Table 1). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.666356
  4. Mühleisen, R; Riekert, H (1970): Atmospheric electric measurements during the Atlantic Expedition 1965 of RV "Meteor", balloon ascent M2_M04 (Table 1). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.666357
  5. Mühleisen, R; Riekert, H (1970): Atmospheric electric measurements during the Atlantic Expedition 1965 of RV "Meteor", balloon ascent M2_M05 (Table 1). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.666358
  6. Mühleisen, R; Riekert, H (1970): Atmospheric electric measurements during the Atlantic Expedition 1965 of RV "Meteor", balloon ascent M2_M06 (Table 1). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.666359
  7. Mühleisen, R; Riekert, H (1970): Atmospheric electric measurements during the Atlantic Expedition 1965 of RV "Meteor", balloon ascent M2_M07 (Table 1). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.666360
  8. Mühleisen, R; Riekert, H (1970): Atmospheric electric measurements during the Atlantic Expedition 1965 of RV "Meteor", balloon ascent M2_M09 (Table 1). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.666361
  9. Mühleisen, R; Riekert, H (1970): Atmospheric electric measurements during the Atlantic Expedition 1965 of RV "Meteor", balloon ascent M2_M11 (Table 1). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.666362
  10. Mühleisen, R; Riekert, H (1970): Atmospheric electric measurements during the Atlantic Expedition 1965 of RV "Meteor", balloon ascent M2_M12 (Table 1). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.666363
  11. Mühleisen, R; Riekert, H (1970): Atmospheric electric measurements during the Atlantic Expedition 1965 of RV "Meteor", balloon ascent M2_M14 (Table 1). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.666364
  12. Mühleisen, R; Riekert, H (1970): Atmospheric electric measurements during the Atlantic Expedition 1965 of RV "Meteor", balloon ascent M2_M16 (Table 1). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.666365
  13. Mühleisen, R; Riekert, H (1970): Atmospheric electric measurements during the Atlantic Expedition 1965 of RV "Meteor", balloon ascent M2_M17 (Table 1). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.666366
  14. Mühleisen, R; Riekert, H (1970): Atmospheric electric measurements during the Atlantic Expedition 1965 of RV "Meteor", balloon ascent M2_M18 (Table 1). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.666367
  15. Mühleisen, R; Riekert, H (1970): Atmospheric electric measurements during the Atlantic Expedition 1965 of RV "Meteor", balloon ascent M2_M20 (Table 1). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.666368
  16. Mühleisen, R; Riekert, H (1970): Atmospheric electric measurements during the Atlantic Expedition 1965 of RV "Meteor", balloon ascent M2_M21 (Table 1). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.666369
  17. Mühleisen, R; Riekert, H (1970): Atmospheric electric measurements during the Atlantic Expedition 1965 of RV "Meteor", balloon ascent M2_M22 (Table 1). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.666370
  18. Mühleisen, R; Riekert, H (1970): Atmospheric electric measurements during the Atlantic Expedition 1965 of RV "Meteor", balloon ascent M2_M24 (Table 1). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.666371
  19. Mühleisen, R; Riekert, H (1970): Atmospheric electric measurements during the Atlantic Expedition 1969 of RV "Meteor", balloon ascent M16_M31 (Table 1). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.666372
  20. Mühleisen, R; Riekert, H (1970): Atmospheric electric measurements during the Atlantic Expedition 1969 of RV "Meteor", balloon ascent M16_M32 (Table 1). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.666373
  21. Mühleisen, R; Riekert, H (1970): Atmospheric electric measurements during the Atlantic Expedition 1969 of RV "Meteor", balloon ascent M16_M33 (Table 1). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.666374
  22. Mühleisen, R; Riekert, H (1970): Atmospheric electric measurements during the Atlantic Expedition 1969 of RV "Meteor", balloon ascent M16_M34 (Table 1). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.666375
  23. Mühleisen, R; Riekert, H (1970): Atmospheric electric measurements during the Atlantic Expedition 1969 of RV "Meteor", balloon ascent M16_M35 (Table 1). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.666376
  24. Mühleisen, R; Riekert, H (1970): Atmospheric electric measurements during the Atlantic Expedition 1969 of RV "Meteor", balloon ascent M16_M36 (Table 1). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.666377
  25. Mühleisen, R; Riekert, H (1970): Atmospheric electric measurements during the Atlantic Expedition 1969 of RV "Meteor", balloon ascent M16_M37 (Table 1). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.666378
  26. Mühleisen, R; Riekert, H (1970): Atmospheric electric measurements during the Atlantic Expedition 1969 of RV "Meteor", balloon ascent M16_M38 (Table 1). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.666379
  27. Mühleisen, R; Riekert, H (1970): Atmospheric electric measurements during the Atlantic Expedition 1969 of RV "Meteor", balloon ascent M16_M39 (Table 1). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.666380
  28. Mühleisen, R; Riekert, H (1970): Atmospheric electric measurements during the Atlantic Expedition 1969 of RV "Meteor", balloon ascent M16_M40 (Table 1). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.666381
  29. Mühleisen, R; Riekert, H (1970): Atmospheric electric measurements during the Atlantic Expedition 1969 of RV "Meteor", balloon ascent M16_M41 (Table 1). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.666382
  30. Mühleisen, R; Riekert, H (1970): Atmospheric electric measurements during the Atlantic Expedition 1969 of RV "Meteor", balloon ascent M16_M42 (Table 1). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.666383
  31. Mühleisen, R; Riekert, H (1970): Atmospheric electric measurements during the Atlantic Expedition 1969 of RV "Meteor", balloon ascent M16_M43 (Table 1). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.666384
  32. Mühleisen, R; Riekert, H (1970): Atmospheric electric measurements during the Atlantic Expedition 1969 of RV "Meteor", balloon ascent M16_M44 (Table 1). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.666385
  33. Mühleisen, R; Riekert, H (1970): Atmospheric electric measurements during the Atlantic Expedition 1969 of RV "Meteor", balloon ascent M16_M45 (Table 1). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.666386
  34. Mühleisen, R; Riekert, H (1970): Atmospheric electric measurements during the Atlantic Expedition 1969 of RV "Meteor", balloon ascent M16_M46 (Table 1). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.666387
  35. Mühleisen, R; Riekert, H (1970): Atmospheric electric measurements during the Atlantic Expedition 1969 of RV "Meteor", balloon ascent M16_M47 (Table 1). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.666388
  36. Mühleisen, R; Riekert, H (1970): Atmospheric electric measurements during the Atlantic Expedition 1969 of RV "Meteor", balloon ascent M16_M48 (Table 1). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.666389
  37. Mühleisen, R; Riekert, H (1970): Atmospheric electric measurements during the Atlantic Expedition 1969 of RV "Meteor", balloon ascent M16_M49 (Table 1). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.666390
  38. Mühleisen, R; Riekert, H (1970): Atmospheric electric measurements during the Atlantic Expedition 1969 of RV "Meteor", balloon ascent M16_M50 (Table 1). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.666391
  39. Mühleisen, R; Riekert, H (1970): Atmospheric electric measurements during the Atlantic Expedition 1969 of RV "Meteor", balloon ascent M16_M51 (Table 1). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.666392
  40. Mühleisen, R; Riekert, H (1970): Atmospheric electric measurements during the Atlantic Expedition 1969 of RV "Meteor", balloon ascent M16_M52 (Table 1). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.666393
  41. Mühleisen, R; Riekert, H (1970): Atmospheric electric measurements during the Atlantic Expedition 1969 of RV "Meteor", balloon ascent M16_M53 (Table 1). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.666394
  42. Mühleisen, R; Riekert, H (1970): Atmospheric electric measurements during the Atlantic Expedition 1969 of RV "Meteor", balloon ascent M16_M54 (Table 1). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.666395