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Snellen, M; Ekama, H (2010): (Page II-LXXVII) Hourly meteorological observations during the drift of Vessel Varna. PANGAEA,

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Snellen, M; Ekama, H (1910): Rapport sur l'expédition Néerlandaise qui a hiverné dans la Mer de Kara en 1882/83. J. van Boekhoven, Utrecht, 275 pp, hdl:10013/epic.28853.d001
Median Latitude: 71.237742 * Median Longitude: 64.428273 * South-bound Latitude: 70.250000 * West-bound Longitude: 59.883300 * North-bound Latitude: 73.416700 * East-bound Longitude: 65.427800
Date/Time Start: 1882-08-01T04:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1883-08-25T20:00:00
Minimum Elevation: 0.0 m * Maximum Elevation: 0.0 m
Kara_Sea_Varna * Latitude Start: 70.250000 * Longitude Start: 64.358000 * Latitude End: 71.180000 * Longitude End: 62.490000 * Date/Time Start: 1882-08-01T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1883-08-25T20:00:00 * Elevation Start: 0.0 m * Elevation End: 0.0 m * Location: Kara Sea * Campaign: IPY-1 (International Polar Year 1881-1884) * Device: Ship Weather Station (SWEAS)
The Netherlands expedition intended to establish a station at Port Dikson, at the mouth of the Ienissei (Yenisey) river, but their ship was beset in heavy sea ice in the Kara Sea. The Varna, along with the Danish vessel Dijmphna, drifted with the ice for the entire IPY year. A station was built on the sea ice in October, near the two trapped ships. The Varna was crushed and finally sank on July 24, 1883. The position given is approximately central to the drift of the two ships.
Sampling intervals and instrument locations varied during the period. Observations were made 6 times per day until October 9, when the station became operational, and during August 1883, after the station was abandoned. The placement of instruments is given:
Barometer elevation: Aug and Sep 1882 = 0 m, Nov and Dec 1882 = 1.15 m, Jan to Jul 1883 = 2.5 m, Aug 1883 = 0.8 m
Thermometer elevation: Aug to Sep 1882 = on vessel, Oct 1882 on Jul 1883 = 3 m, Aug 1883 = 0.8 m
Anemometer height: Installed at 7.20 m in Jan 1883
The heights and elevations above also varied from the actual surface due to the accumulation and melting of snow and ice under the instrument installations.
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethodComment
4Latitude 2Lat 2Snellen, M
5Longitude 2Long 2Snellen, M
6Station pressurePoPoPoPohPaSnellen, MBarometeroriginal data in [mm Hg] calculated to [hPa] by a factor of 1.315789
7Temperature, airTTT°CSnellen, MThermometer
8Vapour tensionehPaSnellen, MHygrometeroriginal data in [mm Hg] calculated to [hPa] by a factor of 1.315789
9Humidity, relativeRH%Snellen, MHygrometer
10Wind direction descriptionWind dir descrSnellen, MAnemometer
11Wind directiondddegSnellen, MCalculated from wind direction description
12Wind speedffBftSnellen, MAnemometer
13Cloud coverCloud cov%Snellen, MVisual observationoriginal data given in tenth
14Cloud typeCloud typeSnellen, MVisual observation
15Cloud direction descriptionCloud dir descrSnellen, MVisual observation
16HydrometeorHydrometeorcodeSnellen, MVisual observation
17Precipitation, daily totalPrecip day totalmmSnellen, MRain gauge
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