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Marchig, Vesna (1972): Geochemistry of recent sediments from the Indian Ocean. PANGAEA, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.548414, Supplement to: Marchig, V (1972): Zur Geochemie rezenter Sedimente des Indischen Ozeans. Meteor Forschungsergebnisse, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Reihe C Geologie und Geophysik, Gebrüder Bornträger, Berlin, Stuttgart, C11, 1-104

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Abstract:
During the International Indian Ocean Expedition (1964/65) sediment cores were taken on six profiles off the western coast of the Indian Subcontinent. These profiles run approximately perpendicular to the coast, from the deep-sea over the continental slope to the continental shelf. Additional samples and cores were taken in a dense pattern in front of the delta of the Indus River. This pattern of sampling covered not only marine sediments, but also river and beach sediments in Pakistan. The marine samples were obtained with piston, gravity and box corers and by a Van Veen grab sampler. The longest piston core is about 5 meters long.
1. Distribution of the elements on the sediment surface
The area of maximal carbonate values (aprox. 80-100% CaCO3) essentially coincides with the continental shelf. The highest Sr values were observed largely within this area, but only in the vicinity of the Gulf of Cambay. Mainly the aragonitic coprolites are responsible for those high Sr contents. The Mg contents of the carbonates are comparatively low; surprisingly enough the highest Mg concentrations were also measured in the coprolites. The maximum contents of organic matter (Core) were found along the upper part of the continental slope. They coincide with the highest porosity and water content of the sediments. Frequently the decomposition of organic matter by oxydation is responsible for the measured Corg contents. On the other side the quantity of originally deposited organic material is less important in most cases.
The enrichment of the "bauxitophile" elements Fe, Ti, Cr and V in the carbonate- and quartz-free portions of the sediments is essentially due to the influence of coarse terrigenous detritus. For the elements Mn, Ni and Cu (in per cent of the carbonateand quartz-free sediment) a strong enrichment was observed in the deep-sea realm. The strong increase in Mn toward the deep-sea is explained by authigenesis of Mn-Fe-concretions. Mn-nodules form only under oxydizing conditions which obviously are possible only at very low rates of deposition.
The Mg, B and, probably also Mn contents in the clay minerals increase with increasing distance from the continent. This can be explained by the higher adsorption of those elements from sea water because of increasing duration of the clay mineral transport. The comparison of median contents of some elements in our deep-sea samples with deep-sea sediments described by TUREKIAN & WEDEPOHL (1961) shows that clear differences in concentration exist only in the case of "bauxitophile" elements Cr and Be. The Cr and Be contents show a clear increase in the Indian Ocean deep-sea samples compared to those described by TUREKIAn & WEDEPOHL (1961) which can obviously be attributed to the enrichment in the lateritic and bauxitic parent rocks. The different behaviour of the elements Fe, Ti and Mn during decomposition of the source rocks, transport to the sea and during oxydizing and reducing conditions in the marine environment can be illustrated by Ti02/Fe and MnO/Fe ratios.
The different compositions of the sediments off the Indus Delta and those of the remaining part of the area investigated are characterized by a different distribution of the elements Mn and Ti.
2. Chemical inhomogenities in the sediments
Most longer cores show 3 intervals defined by chemical and sedimentological differences. The top-most interval is coarse-grained, the intermedial interval is fine grained and the lower one again somewhat coarser. At the same time it is possible to observe differences from interval to interval in the organogenic and detrital constituents. During the formation of the middle interval different conditions of sedimentation from those active during the previous and subsequent periods have obviously prevailed.
Looking more closely at the organogenic constituents it is remarkable that during the formation of the finer interval conditions of a more intensive oxydation have prevailed that was the case before and after: Core decreases, whereas P shows a relative increase. This may be explained by slower sedimentation rate or by a vertical migration of the oxygen rich zone of the sea-water. The modifications of the elements from minerals in detrital portion of the sediments support an explanation ascribing this fact to modifications of the conditions of denudation and transportation which can come about through a climatic change or through tectonic causes.
The paleontological investigations have shown (ZOBEL, in press) that in some of the cores the middle stratum of fine sedimentation represents optimal conditions for organic life. This fact suggests also oxydizing conditions during the sedimentation of this interval.
In addition to the depositional stratification an oxydation zone characterized by Mn-enrichment can be recognized. The thickness of the oxidation zone decreases towards the coast and thins out along the middle part of the continental slope. At those places, where the oxydation zone is extremely thin, enrichment of Mn has its maximum. This phenomenon can probably be attributed to the migration of Mn taking place in its dissociated form within the sediment under reducing conditions. On the other side this Mn-migration in the sediment does not take place in the deep-sea, where oxydizing
conditions prevail.
3. Interstitial waters in the sediments
Already at very small core depths, the interstitial waters have undergone a distinct modification compared with the overlying sea water. This distinct modification applies both to total salinity and to the individual ions. As to the beginning of diagenesis the following conclusions can be drawn:
a) A strong K-increase occurs already at an early stage. It may be attributable to a diffusion barrier or to an exchange of Mg-ions on the clays. Part of this increase may also originate from the decomposition of K-containing silicates (mica and feldspars). A K-decrease owing to the formation of illite (WEAVER 1967), however, occurs only at much greater sediment depth.
b) Because of an organic protective coating, the dissolution of carbonate is delayed in recent organogenic carbonates. At the same time some Ca is probably being adsorbed on clay minerals. Consequently the Ca-content of the interstitial water drops below the Ca-content of the sea water.
c) Already at an early stage the Mg adsorption on the clays is completed. The adsorbed Mg is later available for diagenetic mineral formations and transformations.
Coverage:
Median Latitude: 19.588821 * Median Longitude: 68.706906 * South-bound Latitude: 5.250000 * West-bound Longitude: 64.600000 * North-bound Latitude: 27.741000 * East-bound Longitude: 76.283333
Date/Time Start: 1965-02-05T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1995-12-24T00:00:00
Event(s):
Gulf_Khambhat * Latitude: 21.766667 * Longitude: 72.443333 * Location: Arabian Sea * Campaign: M1 (IIOE - International Indian Ocean Expedition) * Basis: Meteor (1964) * Device: Geological sample (GEOS)
Indus_1 * Latitude: 24.620000 * Longitude: 67.990000 * Date/Time Start: 1965-04-01T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1995-04-30T00:00:00 * Location: Pakistan * Campaign: INDUS (IIOE - International Indian Ocean Expedition) * Device: Geological sample (GEOS)
Indus_10 * Latitude: 25.250000 * Longitude: 68.275000 * Date/Time: 1965-04-01T00:00:00 * Location: Pakistan * Campaign: INDUS (IIOE - International Indian Ocean Expedition) * Device: Geological sample (GEOS) * Comment: Sand u. trockener Schlamm/16 km S Haiderabad, Baran-Fl., Flussbett
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Datasets listed in this publication series

  1. Marchig, V (1972): Chemical analysis of interstitial water of sediment core M1_182SK, Indian Ocean (Appendix). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.476013
  2. Marchig, V (1972): Chemical analysis of interstitial water of sediment core M1_MULT183, Indian Ocean (Appendix). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.476014
  3. Marchig, V (1972): Chemical analysis of interstitial water of sediment core M1_MULT185, Indian Ocean (Appendix). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.476015
  4. Marchig, V (1972): Chemical analysis of interstitial water of sediment core M1_MULT237, Indian Ocean (Appendix). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.476016
  5. Marchig, V (1972): Chemical analysis of interstitial water of sediment core MH_28SK, Indian Ocean (Appendix). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.476012
  6. Marchig, V (1972): Geochemistry of recent sediments from the Indian Ocean (Appendix). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.475937
  7. Marchig, V (1972): Geochemistry of sediment core M1_180SK from the Indian Ocean (Appendix). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.475967
  8. Marchig, V (1972): Geochemistry of sediment core M1_181SK from the Indian Ocean (Appendix). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.475968
  9. Marchig, V (1972): Geochemistry of sediment core M1_182SK from the Indian Ocean (Appendix). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.475969
  10. Marchig, V (1972): Geochemistry of sediment core M1_232SK from the Indian Ocean (Appendix). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.475970
  11. Marchig, V (1972): Geochemistry of sediment core M1_MULT183 from the Indian Ocean (Appendix). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.475971
  12. Marchig, V (1972): Geochemistry of sediment core M1_MULT185 from the Indian Ocean (Appendix). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.475972
  13. Marchig, V (1972): Geochemistry of sediment core M1_MULT186 from the Indian Ocean (Appendix). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.475973
  14. Marchig, V (1972): Geochemistry of sediment core M1_MULT187 from the Indian Ocean (Appendix). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.475974
  15. Marchig, V (1972): Geochemistry of sediment core M1_MULT188 from the Indian Ocean (Appendix). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.475975
  16. Marchig, V (1972): Geochemistry of sediment core M1_MULT196 from the Indian Ocean (Appendix). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.475976
  17. Marchig, V (1972): Geochemistry of sediment core M1_MULT198 from the Indian Ocean (Appendix). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.475977
  18. Marchig, V (1972): Geochemistry of sediment core M1_MULT202 from the Indian Ocean (Appendix). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.475978
  19. Marchig, V (1972): Geochemistry of sediment core M1_MULT205 from the Indian Ocean (Appendix). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.475979
  20. Marchig, V (1972): Geochemistry of sediment core M1_MULT210 from the Indian Ocean (Appendix). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.475993
  21. Marchig, V (1972): Geochemistry of sediment core M1_MULT213 from the Indian Ocean (Appendix). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.475981
  22. Marchig, V (1972): Geochemistry of sediment core M1_MULT219 from the Indian Ocean (Appendix). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.475982
  23. Marchig, V (1972): Geochemistry of sediment core M1_MULT221 from the Indian Ocean (Appendix). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.475983
  24. Marchig, V (1972): Geochemistry of sediment core M1_MULT223 from the Indian Ocean (Appendix). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.475984
  25. Marchig, V (1972): Geochemistry of sediment core M1_MULT226 from the Indian Ocean (Appendix). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.475985
  26. Marchig, V (1972): Geochemistry of sediment core M1_MULT228 from the Indian Ocean (Appendix). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.475986
  27. Marchig, V (1972): Geochemistry of sediment core M1_MULT230 from the Indian Ocean (Appendix). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.475987
  28. Marchig, V (1972): Geochemistry of sediment core M1_MULT234 from the Indian Ocean (Appendix). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.475988
  29. Marchig, V (1972): Geochemistry of sediment core M1_MULT236 from the Indian Ocean (Appendix). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.475989
  30. Marchig, V (1972): Geochemistry of sediment core M1_MULT237 from the Indian Ocean (Appendix). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.475990
  31. Marchig, V (1972): Geochemistry of sediment core MH_10SK from the Indian Ocean (Appendix). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.475953
  32. Marchig, V (1972): Geochemistry of sediment core MH_11SK from the Indian Ocean (Appendix). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.475954
  33. Marchig, V (1972): Geochemistry of sediment core MH_12SK from the Indian Ocean (Appendix). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.475955
  34. Marchig, V (1972): Geochemistry of sediment core MH_20 from the Indian Ocean (Appendix). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.475939
  35. Marchig, V (1972): Geochemistry of sediment core MH_21KA from the Indian Ocean (Appendix). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.475956
  36. Marchig, V (1972): Geochemistry of sediment core MH_22SK from the Indian Ocean (Appendix). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.475957
  37. Marchig, V (1972): Geochemistry of sediment core MH_23SK from the Indian Ocean (Appendix). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.475958
  38. Marchig, V (1972): Geochemistry of sediment core MH_24SK from the Indian Ocean (Appendix). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.475959
  39. Marchig, V (1972): Geochemistry of sediment core MH_25 from the Indian Ocean (Appendix). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.475940
  40. Marchig, V (1972): Geochemistry of sediment core MH_26SK from the Indian Ocean (Appendix). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.475960
  41. Marchig, V (1972): Geochemistry of sediment core MH_27Sk from the Indian Ocean (Appendix). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.475961
  42. Marchig, V (1972): Geochemistry of sediment core MH_28 from the Indian Ocean (Appendix). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.475941
  43. Marchig, V (1972): Geochemistry of sediment core MH_29SK from the Indian Ocean (Appendix). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.475962
  44. Marchig, V (1972): Geochemistry of sediment core MH_30 from the Indian Ocean (Appendix). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.475942
  45. Marchig, V (1972): Geochemistry of sediment core MH_31 from the Indian Ocean (Appendix). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.475943
  46. Marchig, V (1972): Geochemistry of sediment core MH_32KA from the Indian Ocean (Appendix). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.475963
  47. Marchig, V (1972): Geochemistry of sediment core MH_35KA from the Indian Ocean (Appendix). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.475964
  48. Marchig, V (1972): Geochemistry of sediment core MH_36 from the Indian Ocean (Appendix). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.475944
  49. Marchig, V (1972): Geochemistry of sediment core MH_37SK from the Indian Ocean (Appendix). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.475965
  50. Marchig, V (1972): Geochemistry of sediment core MH_38SK from the Indian Ocean (Appendix). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.475966
  51. Marchig, V (1972): Geochemistry of sediment core MH_3SK from the Indian Ocean (Appendix). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.475946
  52. Marchig, V (1972): Geochemistry of sediment core MH_4SK from the Indian Ocean (Appendix). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.475947
  53. Marchig, V (1972): Geochemistry of sediment core MH_5SK from the Indian Ocean (Appendix). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.475948
  54. Marchig, V (1972): Geochemistry of sediment core MH_6SK from the Indian Ocean (Appendix). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.475949
  55. Marchig, V (1972): Geochemistry of sediment core MH_7SK from the Indian Ocean (Appendix). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.475950
  56. Marchig, V (1972): Geochemistry of sediment core MH_8SK from the Indian Ocean (Appendix). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.475951
  57. Marchig, V (1972): Geochemistry of sediment core MH_9SK from the Indian Ocean (Appendix). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.475952
  58. Marchig, V (1972): Geochemistry of sediments from the Indus delta, the lagoon of Cochin, and the Gulf of Khambhat (Appendix). https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.476010