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Gussone, Nikolaus (2004): Delta 44/40 Ca, Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca record of Globigerinoides sacculifer and calculated temperatures and salinity changes of ODP Hole 165-999A. PANGAEA,, Supplement to: Gussone, Nikolaus; Eisenhauer, Anton; Tiedemann, Ralf; Haug, Gerald H; Heuser, Alexander; Bock, Barbara; Nägler, Thomas F; Müller, A (2004): Reconstruction of Caribbean Sea surface temperature and salinity fluctuations in response to the Pliocene closure of the Central American gateway and radiative forcing, using d44/40Ca, d18O and Mg/Ca ratios. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 227(3-4), 201-214,

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The delta18O values of planktonic foraminifera increased in the Caribbean by about 0.5‰ relative to the equatorial East Pacific values between 4.6 and 4.2 Ma as a consequence of the closure of the Central American Gateway (CAG). This increase in delta18O can be interpreted either as an increase in Caribbean sea surface (mixed layer) salinity (SSS) or as a decrease in sea surface temperatures (SST). This problem represents an ideal situation to apply the recently developed paleotemperature proxy delta44/40Ca together with Mg/Ca and d18O on the planktic foraminifer Globigerinoides sacculifer from ODP Site 999. Although differences in absolute temperature calibration of delta44/40Ca and Mg/Ca exist, the general pattern is similar indicating a SST decrease of about 2-3 8C between 4.4 and 4.3 Ma followed by an increase in the same order of magnitude between 4.3 and 4.0 Ma. Correcting the delta18O record for this temperature change and assuming that changes in global ice volume are negligible, the salinity-induced planktonic delta18O signal decreased by about 0.4‰ between 4.4 and 4.3 Ma and increased by about 0.9‰ between 4.3 and 4.0 Ma in the Caribbean. The observed temperature and salinity trends are interpreted to reflect the restricted exchange of surface water between the Caribbean and the Pacific in response to the shoaling of the Panamanian Seaway, possibly accompanied by a southward shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) between 4.4 and 4.3 Ma. Differences in Mg/Ca- and delta44/40Ca-derived temperatures can be reconciled by corrections for secular variations of the marine Mg/Ca[sw] and delta44/40Ca, a salinity effect on the Mg/Ca ratio and a constant temperature offset of ~2.5 °C between both SST proxy calibrations.
Related to:
Haug, Gerald H; Tiedemann, Ralf; Zahn, Rainer; Ravelo, Ana Christina (2001): Role of Panama uplift on oceanic freshwater balance. Geology, 29(3), 207-210,;2
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Bonn (DFG), grant/award no. 5111988: Quartäres Paläoklima im zentralen Pazifik (Ontong Java Plateau)
German Science Foundation (DFG), grant/award no. 345915838: Modelling flow over bedform fields in tidal environments
German Science Foundation (DFG), grant/award no. 390741603: EXC 2077: The Ocean Floor – Earth's Uncharted Interface
Latitude: 12.744000 * Longitude: -78.739300
Date/Time Start: 1996-01-10T19:30:00 * Date/Time End: 1996-01-14T23:15:00
Minimum DEPTH, sediment/rock: 124.95 m * Maximum DEPTH, sediment/rock: 140.71 m
165-999A * Latitude: 12.744000 * Longitude: -78.739300 * Date/Time Start: 1996-01-10T19:30:00 * Date/Time End: 1996-01-14T23:15:00 * Elevation: -2828.0 m * Penetration: 566.1 m * Recovery: 534.83 m * Location: Caribbean Sea * Campaign: Leg165 * Basis: Joides Resolution * Method/Device: Drilling/drill rig (DRILL) * Comment: 61 core; 566.1 m cored; 0 m drilled; 94.5 % recovery
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethod/DeviceComment
1DEPTH, sediment/rockDepthmGeocode
2AGEAgeka BPGeocode
3Sample code/labelSample labelGussone, NikolausDSDP/ODP/IODP sample designation
4Depth, compositeDepth compmcdGussone, NikolausIntercore correlation
5δ44/40 Caδ44/40 Ca‰ SRM 915aGussone, NikolausMass spectrometer Finnigan MAT 262 RPQ Plus
6Sea surface temperature, annual meanSST (1-12)°CGussone, NikolausCalculated from d44/40 Ca (Nägler et al., 2000)
7Sea surface temperature, annual meanSST (1-12)°CGussone, NikolausCalculated, see reference(s)corrected SST
8Sea surface temperature, annual meanSST (1-12)°CGussone, NikolausCalculated from Mg/Ca ratios (Nürnberg et al. 1996)
9Sea surface temperature, annual meanSST (1-12)°CGussone, NikolausCalculated, see reference(s)Mg/Ca-based SST corrected
10Magnesium/Calcium ratioMg/CaGussone, NikolausICP-OES, Jobin Yvon, JY 170 UltratraceUnit=mmol/mol
11Strontium/Calcium ratioSr/CaGussone, NikolausCalculated, see reference(s)mmol/mol
12Globigerinoides sacculifer, δ18OG. sacculifer δ18O‰ PDBGussone, NikolausIsotope ratio mass spectrometry20-point running mean, from Haug et al. (2001)
13δ18O, temperature contributionδ18O temp contGussone, NikolausCalculated, see reference(s)
14δ18O, waterδ18O H2O‰ SMOWGussone, NikolausCalculated, see reference(s)
15Sea surface salinitySSSGussone, NikolausCalculated, see reference(s)
16MassMassµgGussone, NikolausCalculated, see reference(s)weight per foraminifer
332 data points

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