König-Langlo, Gert (2006): Standard meteorological measurements on board of POLARSTERN during expedition ANT-IV (PS08, 4 cruises, south summer 1985/86) in the Atlantic and Weddell Sea, Antarctica. Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Center for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, PANGAEA, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.472287
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During the fourth Antarctic voyage ANT-IV of the research icebreaker POLARSTERN standard meteorological measurements have been performed. The measurements include 3-hourly synoptic observations as well as daily upper air soundings. The measurements started on September 6 1985 at Bremerhaven and were terminated at April 28 1986 in Punta Arenas.
The 3-hourly synoptic observations are performed following the instructions of the FM 13 ships code defined by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). The datasets include automatic measurements such as mean ship's speed, wind velocity, wind direction, air temperature, water temperature as well as visual observations such as total cloud amount, present weather, clouds, height and period of swell waves, ice classification. The visual observation are not performed during night time.
For the upper air soundings VAISALA RS80 radiosondes, carried by helium-filled balloons (TOTEX 350 - 1500) were used. Data reception and evaluation were carried out by a MicroCora System (VAISALA). The upper air soundings include profile measurements of pressure, temperature, relative humidity and wind vector. Usually the soundings started at the heliport (10 m above sea level) and terminated between 15 and 37 km. The height of the measurements was calculated by applying the barometric formula. The wind vector was determined with the aid of the OMEGA navigation system.
Fütterer, Dieter K (1987): Die Expedition ANTARKTIS-IV mit FS Polarstern 1985/1986, Bericht von den Fahrtabschnitten ANT-IV/3-4 (The Expedition ANTARKTIS-IV of RV POLARSTERN 1985/86 Report of Legs ANT-IV/3-4). Berichte zur Polarforschung = Reports on Polar Research, 33, 204 pp, https://doi.org/10.2312/BzP_0033_1987
Median Latitude: -37.669767 * Median Longitude: -23.548959 * South-bound Latitude: -77.650000 * West-bound Longitude: -69.770000 * North-bound Latitude: 48.800000 * East-bound Longitude: 16.600000
Date/Time Start: 1985-09-06T06:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1986-04-28T18:00:00
PS08/01331 * Latitude: 36.410000 * Longitude: -12.170000 * Date/Time: 1985-09-26T11:30:00 * Location: North Atlantic Ocean * Campaign: ANT-IV/1a (PS08 NOAMP) * Basis: Polarstern * Device: Radiosonde (RADIO)
PS08/01332 * Latitude: 35.050000 * Longitude: -12.490000 * Date/Time: 1985-09-26T17:24:00 * Location: North Atlantic Ocean * Campaign: ANT-IV/1a (PS08 NOAMP) * Basis: Polarstern * Device: Radiosonde (RADIO)