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Metzl, Nicolas; Tilbrook, Bronte; Poisson, Alain (1999): Sea surface fugacity of carbon dioxide measurements in the Indian and Southern Oceans obtained during MINERVE-29/ANTARES-II cruise. PANGAEA,, Supplement to: Metzl, N et al. (1999): The annual fCO2 cycle and the air-sea CO2 fluxes in the sub-Antarctic Ocean. Tellus Series B-Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 51(4), 849-861,

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The sub-Antarctic zone (SAZ) lies between the subtropical convergence (STC) and the sub-Antarctic front (SAF), and is considered one of the strongest oceanic sinks of atmospheric CO2. The strong sink results from high winds and seasonally low sea surface fugacities of CO2 (fCO2), relative to atmospheric fCO2. The region of the SAZ, and immediately south, is also subject to mode and intermediate water formation, yielding a penetration of anthropogenic CO2 below the mixed layer. A detailed analysis of continuous measurements made during the same season and year, February - March 1993, shows a coherent pattern of fCO2 distributions at the eastern (WOCE/SR3 at about 145°E) and western edges (WOCE/I6 at 30°E) of the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean. A strong CO2 sink develops in the Austral summer (delta fCO2 < - 50 µatm) in both the eastern (110°-150°E) and western regions (20°-90°E). The strong CO2 sink in summer is due to the formation of a shallow seasonal mixed-layer (about 100 m). The CO2 drawdown in the surface water is consistent with biologically mediated drawdown of carbon over summer. In austral winter, surface fCO2 is close to equilibrium with the atmosphere (delta fCO2 ± 5 µatm), and the net CO2 exchange is small compared to summer. The near-equilibrium values in winter are associated with the formation of deep winter mixed-layers (up to 700 m). For years 1992-95, the annual CO2 uptake for the Indian Ocean sector of the sub Antarctic Zone (40°-50°S, 20°-150°E) is estimated to be about 0.4 GtC/yr. Extrapolating this estimate to the entire sub-Antarctic zone suggests the uptake in the circumpolar SAZ is approaching 1 GtC/yr.
Further details:
Metzl, Nicolas; Brunet, Christian: Sea Surface fCO2 measurements in the Indian and Southern Oceans obtained during MINERVE-29 associated to JGOFS/ANTARES-2 cruise onboard the R.V. Marion-Durfresne (IPEV), 28/1-22/3/94. hdl:10013/epic.40328.d010
Median Latitude: -50.396839 * Median Longitude: 63.278025 * South-bound Latitude: -66.970000 * West-bound Longitude: 51.920000 * North-bound Latitude: -22.740000 * East-bound Longitude: 77.690000
Date/Time Start: 1994-01-28T01:16:00 * Date/Time End: 1994-03-22T13:43:00
Minimum DEPTH, water: m * Maximum DEPTH, water: m
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethod/DeviceComment
4DEPTH, waterDepth watermGeocode
5Pressure, atmosphericPPPPhPaMetzl, Nicolas
6Fugacity of carbon dioxide in seawaterfCO2wµatmMetzl, Nicolasnormalized at 1 atm
7Fugacity of carbon dioxide (air, 100% humidity)fCO2airµatmMetzl, Nicolasat local pressure
8FluorescenceFluorescencearbitrary unitsMetzl, Nicolasrelative units
9Temperature, technicalT tech°CMetzl, Nicolasin the equilibrium cell
10Temperature, waterTemp°CMetzl, Nicolas
11SalinitySalMetzl, Nicolas
35234 data points

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