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Anderson, Linda Davis; Ravelo, Ana Christina (2001): (Table T2) Biogenic opal in Palmer Deep sediments at ODP Site 178-1098. PANGAEA,, Supplement to: Anderson, LD; Ravelo, AC (2001): Data report: Biogenic opal in Palmer Deep sediments, Site 1098, Leg 178. In: Barker, PF; Camerlenghi, A; Acton, GD; Ramsay, ATS (eds.) Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results, College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 178, 1-7,

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High-resolution records of sedimentary proxies provide insights into fine-scale geochemical responses to climatic forcing. Gamma-ray attenuation (GRA) bulk-density data and magnetic stratigraphy records from Palmer Deep, Site 1098, show variability close to the same scale as ice cores, making this site ideal for high-resolution geochemical investigations. In conjunction with shipboard geophysical measurements, silica records allow high-resolution evaluation of the frequencies and amplitudes of biogenic variability. This provides investigators additional data sets to evaluate the global extent of climatic events that are presently defined by regional oceanic data sets (e.g., Younger Dryas in the North Atlantic) and to evaluate the potential mechanisms that link biological productivity and climate in the Southern Ocean.
In addition, because of the observed links between diatom blooms and export productivity (Michaels and Silver, 1988, doi:10.1016/0198-0149(88)90126-4), biogenic silica may be an indicator of the efficiency of the biological pump (removal of organic carbon from the euphotic zone and burial within the sediments). Because the net removal of CO2 (on short time scales up to millennial, the balance between upwelled CO2, carbon fixation, and the removal of organic carbon from the surface ocean) can determine the atmospheric concentration; proxies that allow us to quantify export production yield insights into carbon cycle responses.
In today's ocean, diatoms are integrally linked with new production (production based on the use of nitrate and molecular nitrogen rather than ammonium, which is generated by the microbial degradation of organic carbon) (Dugdale and Goering, 1967). Thus, as with nutrient utilization proxies, biogenic silica may be a good indicator of export production. The difficulties lie in translating the biogenic opal burial records to export production. Numerous factors control the preservation of sedimentary biogenic silica, including depth of the water column, water temperature, trace element chemistry, grazing pressure, bloom structure, and species composition of the diatom assemblage (Nelson et al., 1995, doi:10.1029/95GB01070). In addition, several recent investigations have noted additional complications. Iron limitation increases the uptake of Si relative to carbon (Hutchins et al., 1998, ; Takeda, 1998, doi:10.1038/31674). In the Southern Ocean, iron limitation could produce more robust, and thus better preserved, diatoms; thus, the burial record may be a record of iron limitation rather than of the export of organic carbon (Boyle, 1998). In addition, laboratory experiments show that bacteria accelerate the dissolution of biogenic silica (Bidle and Azam, 1999, doi:10.1038/17351). Both the species composition and temperature seem to influence the amount of dissolution. Evidence of recycling of silicic acid within the photic zone (Brzezinski et al., 1997) suggests that the silica pump (removal from the euphotic zone of silica relative to nitrogen and phosphorus) may work with variable efficiency. This becomes an issue when trying to reconstruct the removal of organic carbon from sedimentary biogenic silica records. In fact, there is a wide range in the Si:Corganic molar ratio in the Southern Ocean (0.18-0.81) (Nelson et al., 1995; Ragueneau et al., 2000, doi:10.1016/S0921-8181(00)00052-7).
Thus, the presence (or absence) of biogenic silica alone may tell us little about the export productivity, complicating the interpretation of age-related trends. One recent assessment has added some hope to links between productivity and opal burial in the Southern Ocean (Pondaven et al., 2000). Quantitative comparison of different productivity proxies will greatly aid in this evaluation.
Latitude: -64.861950 * Longitude: -64.207883
Date/Time Start: 1998-03-09T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1998-03-09T00:00:00
Minimum DEPTH, sediment/rock: 18.53 m * Maximum DEPTH, sediment/rock: 43.42 m
178-1098 * Latitude: -64.861950 * Longitude: -64.207883 * Date/Time: 1998-03-09T00:00:00 * Elevation: -1011.0 m * Penetration: 135.6 m * Recovery: 136.7 m * Location: Drake Passage * Campaign: Leg178 * Basis: Joides Resolution * Method/Device: Composite Core (COMPCORE) * Comment: 17 cores; 135.6 m cored; 0 m drilled; 100.8% recovery
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