Willkomm, H et al. (1992): 14C activity of Antarctic lichens. doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.763182, Supplement to:Willkomm, Horst; Bölter, Manfred; Kappen, Ludger (1992): Age estimation of Antarctic Macrolichens by radiocarbon measurements. Polarforschung, 61(2/3), 103-112, hdl:10013/epic.29685.d001
By the nuclear bomb tests during the 1950s and early 1960s, the radiocarbon content of the atmospheric CO, on the Southern Hemisphere rose within a few years from 98 to 162% of the standard recent value and then dropped to 122% (at the end of 1984). This rapid fluctuation was used to determine the lifetime of five species of lichens collected in the beginning of 1985 in the maritime Antarctic. Under the assumption that Lichens assimilate each year carbon at the same rate and that carbon once fixed at least in main branches never will be exchanged later on. The age of mature thalli of Caioplaco regalis, Ramalino tetebrata and Ustiea antarctica was determined to 32 years, while U, aurantiaco-atra and Himantormia lugubris
gave an age of ca. 38 years and ca. 60 years, respectively.