Meyer, MA et al. (1988): Table 3: Reproductive viability of Hemichloris antarctica after cycles of cooling und warming. doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.762488, Supplement to:Meyer, MA; Huang, G-H; Morris, GJ; Friedmann, E Imre (1988): 2.2 The effect of low temperatures on Antarctic endolithic green algae. Polarforschung, 58(2/3), 113-119, hdl:10013/epic.29606.d001
Laboratory experiments show that undercooling to about -5°C occurs in colonized Beacon sandstones of the Ross Desert, Antarctica. High-frequency temperature oscillations between 5°C and -5°C or -10°C (which occur in nature on the rock surface) did not damage Hemichloris antarctica. In a cryomicroscope, H. antarctica appeared to be undamaged after slow or rapid cooling to -50°C. l4CO2 incorporation after freezing to -20°C was unaffected in H. antarctica or in Trebouxia sp. but slightly depressed in Stichococcus sp. (isolated from a less extreme Antarctic habitat). These results suggest that the freezing regime in the Antarctic desert is not injurious to endolithic algae. It is likely that the freezing-point depression inside the rock makes available liquid water for metabolic activity at subzero temperatures. Freezing may occur more frequently on the rock surface and contribute to the abiotic nature of the surface.