Janczyk-Kopikowa, Z (2011): Pollen record from Golkow, Poland. doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.760378, Supplement to:Janczyk-Kopikowa, Zofia (1966): Interglacjal eemski w Golkowie kolo Warszawy (Eemian Interglacial at Golkow near Warsaw). Kwartalnik Geologiczny, 10(2), 453-461, hdl:10013/epic.37495.d001
Janczyk-Kopikowa (1966): The series of the organic deposits, developed in the vicinity of Golkow near Warsaw as oil shales and peats, was laid down in a grough valley and now rests on the deposits of the Middle Polish Glaciation (Riss). The organic deposits are overlain by the fluviale deposits of the North Polish Glaciation (Würm). The locality Golkow occurs beyond the extent of the continental glacier of this glaciation.
Polen analysis completed by microfloristic examinations allows to determine the age of the organic series that is thought to be Eemian. The pollen diagram from Golkow does not call in question the stratigraphical position of the deposits investigated mainly due to its characteristic features such as minimum content of coniferous trees in the climatic optimum - about 5%, high percentage of Corylus - 77.5% and well developed phase of hornbeam. It may be well compared with other Eemian diagrams from the area of Poland and reveals much similar features.
The development of vegetation at Golkow has depended upon the prevailing climate. At first, the cool climate brings about the development of plants having small thermal requirements. Here belong thin, park-like forests with pine and birch (Pinus, Betula) accompanied by the heliophilic plants such as Hippohäe and Ephedra. Improvement of climate that becomes warm and humid provides for development of deciduous forests prevailing in the climatic optimum, of the interglacial. Decrease of temperature causes a repeated change in the type of forest. This latter changes into coniferous forest with prevailing spruce (Picea) and fir (Abies) at the beginning, and then with pine (Pinus) and birch (Betula). During the Eemian Interglacial, the development of plants at Golkow terminates with a new and long-lasting predominance of pine-birch forests. However, such a longevity may be apparent only. Apparent character of this phenomenon is proved by a fact that the pollen spectra of the warm climatic periods have found their reflex in the oil shale that increased considerably slower than the layers off feebly decomposed peat evidencing the existence of cool pine-birch forests from the decline of the Interglacial.
The water basin, in which the polen grains were laid down from surrounding plants is characterized by a calm sedimentation as proved by the occurrence of the oil shale. An insignificant water flow left behind some thin sand laminae. The not too deep basin becomes shallower owing to the growing water vegetation, and marshy vegetation. The growing of the plants causes a complete shallowing of the basin and formation of peat bog in situ, as proved by the peat beds occurring in the section.
Gadomska (1966): In the vicinity of Golków a series of organic deposits occurs amounting to 6.5-9.3 m in thickness, and consisting of oil shales, lacustrine silts and sands, as well as peats and peaty silts. The organic deposits fill up an old, small, but fairly deep lake basin, probably of finger-lake origin. It may be seen to-day as a slight lowering of the relief, filled up with soaked ground, stretching from north to south.
On the basis of palaeobotanical examinations the organic deposits considered are of Eemian Interglacial age (Z. Janczyk-Kopikowa, 1063). The lower part of the organic series consists of a compact oil shale horizon, the maximum thickness of which may attain up to 8 m. The oil shales contain particularly in their upper part, numerous intercalations of arenaceous silts, dark grey or black in colour, or of sands mainly of lacustrine provenance. At the top of the oil shales are found peats, up to 2.5 m in thickness, covered by black, humus silts with numerous plant remains.
The Eemian Interglacial deposits are covered by a series of fluviatile sands belonging partly to the Baltic Glaciation (bottom part of the series), partly to the Holocene (top part of the series). The thickness of the sands is 0.5-3.7 m. Higher up, there are found the Holocene and present-day deposits developed as clayey alluvion, or arenaceous slide rocks, or arenaceous-silty soil.
Gadomska, Stefania (1966): Sytuacja geologiczna osadów interglacjalu eemskiego w Golkowie kolo Warszawy (Geological situation of the Eemian interglacial deposits at Golkow near Warsaw). Kwartalnik Geologiczny, 10(2), 442-457, hdl:10013/epic.37494.d001
Rozycki, S Z (1968): The Golkow Depression during the last Interglacial. Acta Geologica Polonica, 18(3), 623-662
GOLKOW * Latitude: 52.051389 * Longitude: 20.973611 * Date/Time: 1956-06-30T00:00:00 * Elevation Start: 108.0 m * Elevation End: 0.0 m * Location: Golkow, Poland * Device: Hand borer (HB) * Comment: N part of the lake. Core diameter: 12 cm. Area: 12 ha. Fossil lake.