Paus, AA; Jevne, OE (1987): Pollen record and age determination of a sediment profile from Frengstadsetra, Norway. European Pollen Database (EPD), doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.757683, Supplement to:Paus, Agae A; Jevne, Ole Erik (1987): Innerdalens historie belyst ved den pollenanalytisk metoden. Rapport arkeologisk serie, 1, 7-89, hdl:10013/epic.36858.d001
Innerdalen was once a mountain valley (ca. 780 m a.s.l.) with birch forests, bogs and several summer farms. Today it is a 6.5 km**2 artifical lake. In 1980 and 1981 archaeological and palynological investigations were carried out due to the hydroelectric power plans.
Radiocarbon dated pollen diagrams from 9 different localities in Innerdalen provide information on a mountain environment which has been exploited to varying degrees by human groups for thousands of years. In the Birch Zone, ca. 9500-8500 years B.P., the deglaciated surface is vegetated by the normal sequence of pioneering species, first show-bed communities, then shrub/dwarf-shrub communities, and finally a birch forest community. In the Pine Zone, ca. 8500-7500 years B.P., the mixed Birch-Pine forest which prevailed at the end of the Birch Zone is replaced by a dense pine forest. The tree limit was higher than it is today.
In the Alder Zone, ca. 7500-4000 years B.P., the newly arrived alder gradually succeeded pine, particularily on good soils. This alder forest has a modem analog in the pre-alpine gray alder forests in Norway. In the last part of the Alder Zone, ca. 6000-4000 years B.P., elm and hazel are nominally present on particularily rich soils, marking the edaphic and climatic optimum in Innerdalen.
During this time the first evidence of human impact on the vegetation is apparent in the pollen diagrams. At both Sætersetra in the south of the valley and Liabekken in the north, forest clearance and the development of grazed grass meadows is documented, and human impact continues until the present.
The Herb Zone, ca. 4000 years B.P. to 1600 A.D., is characterized by the rapid decline of alder. The forest is increasingly open, and bog formation is initiated. The sub-alpine belt of birch forest is established, probably due to the shift to a cooler, moister climate. Human activity can also have influenced the vegetational changes, although at 4 of the localities human activity also is first apparent after the alder decline. Some localities show measurably less human impact on the vegetation ca. 2600-2000 years B.P.
Grazing intensity increases ca. 2000 years B.P. At the end of the Herb Zone rye and barley pollen is registered at Sætersetra and Flonan, indicating contact between the grazing activities of Innerdal and grain cultivation activities outside the valley.
The Spruce Zone, ca. 1600 A.D. to the present, does not begin synchronously since the presence of long-distance transported spruce pollen at a locality is entirely dependent on the density of the vegetation ie. degree of human impact. The youngest spruce rise is ca. 1500 A.D. at Røstvangen, when summerfarming is initiated.
Summerfarming activities in Innerdal produce an increasingly open landscape. Rye and barley pollen at several localities may indicate limited local cultivation, but is more likely long-distance transport via humans and domesticated animals from cultivated areas outside Innerdalen.