Blümel, W-D et al. (1985): Chemical composition of soils and rocks from King George Island. doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.754479, Supplement to:Blümel, Wolf-Dieter; Emmermann, Rolf; Smykatz-Kloss, W (1985): Vorkommen und Entstehung von tri-oktaedrischen Smektiten in den Basalten und Böden der König-Georg-Insel (S-Shetlands/West-Antarktis). Polarforschung, 55(1), 33-48, hdl:10013/epic.29560.d001
Both the olivine-hearing tholeiite basalts of the island and the brown soils which have developed on the basalts contain 2-20% of a swelling clay mineral. It emerges from chemical, optical, X-ray diffraction and differential thermal analytical studies that this clay mineral is a Mg-rich, Fe2+ and AI-bearing tri-octahedral smectite, e. g. Mg-saponite. Due to petrographic and crystal chemical properties the saponite should have been formed by hydrothermal alteration of the primary Mg-Fe-minerals olivine and clinopyroxene. The soils consist of plagioclase, saponite and goethite which has been formed by chemical weathering within the soils. In the uppermost layer some of the soils contain humic substances and phosphatic material, the latter may be related to the recent production of guano.